to XXI dynasty

High Priests of Amun 1080 - 775
( Thebes )

to XXI dynasty

By the end of reign of the last Ramesses the rule all over the land was held actually by its vizier and viceroy of Nubia, the first prophet of Amun – Herhor. His rule inaugurates dynasty of high priests of Amun, reigning at Thebes. At the same time at Tanis and Busiris reigns dynasty XXI founded by Smendes, replaced later by Libyan dynasty XXII founded by Sheshonq. Some of the high priests hold rule all over Egypt or at least endeavor to show their right to rule by adopting full royal titulary. Others seem to be satisfied with their function of high priests and remain fully loyal to the kings reigning in the North, to whom they often are closely related.
The period between IX and VIII century BC is object of numerous discussions of scholars and experts in the subject. Two undeniable authorities, K.Kitchen and D.A. Aston represent two different standpoints both as to dating, sequence and genealogy of respective high priests as well as related to them rulers of dynasties XXII and XXIII. It seems that in the light of recent examinations, based on a few and not very convincing sources, answering all questions concerning that so scarcely understood period, remains impossible. Any archaeological discovery throwing some light onto dark shades overlying events of those ages might change diametrically hypotheses proposed by historians of the III Intermediate Period.
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1

1080 - 1074
1076-1066 (Jensen-Winkeln)
Family Tree

Herhor

Hm-nTr- tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw-imi-ramSa wr n Smaw mHw HAwti Hri-Hr

  • Hr kA nxt sA-imn
  • sHtp-nTrw , swab-bnbn-mH-sw-m-mnw , sHb-wAst-m-mnw-wrw-xpS-anx-tAwi
  • iri-Axw(t)-m-ipt-swt-n-it=f-imn , iri-mAat-m-xt-tAwi
  • Hm-nTr tpi-n-imn
  • Hri-Hr (sA-imn)

 Hm-nTr tpi-n-imn Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun (The First Prophet Of Amun)

 Hri-Hr (sA-imn) Herhor Siamun  (Horus Protects Me ; Son Of Amun)

First Prophet of Amun, then ruler of the Upper Egipt. His antecedents remain largely unknown, generally it is accepted that he originated from Libyan family of officers. It is also assumed that he was father-in-law of high priest Piankhi (Herhor’s daughter:  Hereret), although most recently contradictory opinion of K. Jansen-Winkeln is prevailing that Piankhi was Herhor’s father-in-law and father of his wife Nedjemet. Thus their sequence of rule would be reverse – it would be Piankhi and not Herhor who made campaigns against rebelling viceroy of Kush Panehesi. A. Niwinski does not share this view and ascribes those events to Herhor. In year 19 of Ramesses XI rule Herhor acquired a title of vizier and viceroy of Nubia, later he took command over army and short thereafter actual rule over Egypt. After Ramesses death he proclaimed himself king of Egypt, the event confirmed by Oracle of Chonsu and Amun. In “ The Story of Wenamen”, dated back to dynasty XXII are mentioned events of the year 5 of Herhor’s rule, Wenamen’s journey to get wood to make barge of Amun.

2

1074 - 1070
Family Tree

Piankhi

TAj-xw (Hr) wnm-nsw sS-nsw imi-rA-mSa sA nsw n kAS imi-rA-xAswt-rswt Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-Snwt n pr-aA ... HAwti pAi-anx n pDwt pr-a

 pAi-anx Piankhi

Presumably son-in-law of Herhor and his heir to the Theban throne of high priests of Amun or, according to K. Jansen-Winkeln, Herhor’s father-in-law and his predecessor in fight with Panehesi, the viceroy of Kush, whom he finally conquered and thus became actual ruler of the Upper Egypt in times of Ramesses XI reign. Piankhi’s wife was Hereret, presumably daughter of Herhor, and his son was Pinedjem I.

3

1070 - 1032
1070-1055 (as High Priest - Grimal)
1054-1032 (as king - Grimal)

1049-1026 (Dodson)

Family Tree

Pinudjem I

imi-ra-niwt TAti Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra0nsw-nTrw imi-ra-mSa wr n tA r-Dr.f HAwti pA-nDm

  • Hr kA nxt mri-imn , kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • xpr-xaw-ra (stp.n-imn)
  • pAi-nDm (mri-imn)
   xpr-xaw-ra (stp.n-imn) Kheperkhaure Setepenamun (The Soul Of Re Appears ; Chosen Of Amun)
 pAi-nDm (mri-imn) Pinudjem Meriamun (He Who Belongs To The Pleasant One ; Beloved Of Amun)
   

Son of high priest Pinudjem by Hereret. He was father of high priests Djedchonsuefankh, Masuharte and Psusennes I. After Ramesses XI death he made agreement with his father-in-law Smendes I who, after Pinudjem’s acceptation, coexisted as ruler in the North. Since year 1054 as de facto ruler of the whole Egypt he passed the office of high priest to his sons. A few relics of this period of time allow conclude that there was opposition against Pinudjem and his sons who held the most important functions in the Land. Heads of opposition had been finally deported to Charga Oasis in 1045. Under his reign royal mummies had been concealed in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari and also buried Herhor’s wife – Nedjemet. Moreover, Pinudjem took care of tombs of other New Kingdom rulers.

4

1054 - 1045
1054-1046 (Grimal)
The Mummy Family Tree
 

Masuharte

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr n Smaw mHw mshrt

 mshrt Masuharte

The eldest son of Pinedjem I and Isetemkheb II, appointed by his father in 16 year of rule, High Priest at Thebes while Pinedjem I himself held a rule all over Egypt as pharaoh. Masuharte died before his father.A fragment of a letter may indicate that Masaharta fell ill and died at El-Hiba. The High Priest’s mummy was discovered in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

5

1045
Family Tree

Djedkhonsuefankh (1)

High Priest of Amun, whose name Khonsu Speaks And He Lives was mentioned on now lost coffin. He was supposed to be son of Pinedjem I. It is possible that he died in violent death, as the consequence of troubles in Thebes at the time.

6

1045 - 992
1045-992 (Grimal)
Family Tree

Menkheperre

Mh-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr mn-xpr-ra

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Hm-nr tpi n imn
  • mn-xpr-ra
 Hm-nr tpi n imn Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun (The First Prophet Of Amun)
 mn-xpr-ra Mencheperre (Lasting Is The Manifestation Of Re)

Second son of Pinedjem I. Father of Smendes II and Pinedjem. Under his reign, similarly as under Pinedjem I, the royal mummies had been moved and protected in the cache at Western Thebes. Probably during long-lasting rule of Menkheperre a rebel, suppressed ruthlessly by the high priest, broke out in the Upper Egypt - leaders of the rebel were expelled to the Oasis Kharga.

7

992 - 990
Family Tree
 

Smendes (2)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn ni-swbA-nb-Dd(t)

 ni-swbA-nb-Dd(t) Nisu-Ba-Neb-Djedet

Eldest son of Mencheperre and Isetemcheb III, brother of Pinedjem II. Due to short duration of his rule there are very scanty relics dated to that period of time – decree in the pylon 10 of the Temple of Karnak and stone table at courtyard in front of that pylon.

8

990 - 969
The Mummy Family Tree
 

Pinudjem (2)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr HAwti pAi-nDm

 pAi-nDm Pinudjem (He Who Belongs To The Pleasant One)

Son of high priest Mencheperre and Isetemcheb III. High priest of Amun at Thebes under Amenemipet, Osokhor and Siamen reign. Both wives of Pinedjem II held numerous profitable posts as prophetesses. One of them, daughter of Smendes II, Neskhonsu, became governor of foreign countries and viceroy of Nubia (!!). Mummy of the high priest was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

9

969 - 945
 Tablica genealogiczna

Psusennes III (Pasebakhaienniut)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw pA-sbA-xai-n-niwt , Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw iri hpw nfrw n kmt HAwti(n) pr-aA pA-sbA-xai-(n)-niwt mri-imn

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • tit-xpr-ra (stp.n-imn)
  • Hm-nTr tpi n imn pA-sbA-xai-n-niwt , (mri-imn) , Psusennes (Man)
 tit-xprw-ra (stp.n-ra) Titkheperure Setepenre  (Image Of The Transormations Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
 pA-sbA-xai-n-niwt (mri-imn) Pasebakhaienniut Meriamun (The Star The Appears In The City ; Beloved Of Amun)

Identity of this ruler still remains questionable for historians. There is an opinion, shared by J. Beckerath, that Psusennes III and Psusennes II, the last ruler of dynasty XXI, are one and the same person. It is possible that Psusennes, who was high priest at Thebes and local ruler in the Abydos area, expanded his influence as far as to Delta ca 959 BC, adopting also royal titulary. In hieratic graffiti from temple of Ptah at Abydos he is named the king of the Upper and Lower Egypt, high priest of Amun-Re and commander of army. One of his daughters, Tanetsepeh, was wife of Shedsunefertum, the high priest of Ptah at Memphis, second one – Maatkare was married to Osorkon I.

10

944 - 924
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Iuput

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr n rsit HAwti ipwt

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
ipwt Iuput

Son of Sheshonq I, the high Priest of Amun at Thebes, entitled: Commander-in-chief of the Army ; Governor of the Upper Egypt. He built for himself cenotaph (dummy tomb) at Abydos.

11

924 - 894
924-889 (Grimal)
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Sheshonq

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr HAwti SSnq , Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw-nb(w)-n-Smaw-mHw HAwti SSnq mri-imn

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
SSnq [mri-]imn Szeszonk [Meri]amun (Sheshonq, Beloved Of Amun)

Son of Osorkon I by Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes II. Step-brother of Takelot I and high priests: Iuwlot and Smendes. In 924 he was made by his father the high priest of Amun at Thebes and short before his death – nominated the coregent and since then his name was inscribed in royal cartouche with all titles due to the king of Lower and Upper Egypt. However Sheshonq died unexpectedly and was succeeded by his step-brother, Takelot I. Sheshonq was the father of high priest Horsiese. He was buried in the antechamber of the Psusennes I tomb. His rich funerary equipment consists of gold funerary mask, silver sarcophagus, pectorals, amulets and other precious objects. Identical with king of XXII Dynasty, Sheshonq II.

12

894 - 884
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Iuwlot

Hm-nTr tpi n imn iwlt

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun (The First Prophet Of Amun)

Son of Osorkon I, step brother of Takelot I, Sheshonq II - his predecessor on the throne of high priests and Smendes III – his successor.

13

884 - 874
890-889 (Grimal)
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Smendes (3)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn imi-ramSA wr n Smaw-mHw HAwti ni-sw-bA-nb-Dd(t)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
 ni-swbA-nb-Dd(t) Nisu-Ba-Neb-Djedet

 Son of Osorkon I, step brother of his predecessors: Iuwlot and Sheshonq. He is disclosed by indexes of the Nile level at Karnak, dated to the times of Takelot II.

14

874 - 860
867-857 (Dodson)
874-870 (as High Priest - Grimal)
870-860 (as king - Grimal)

Tablica genealogiczna

Horsiese

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw Hr-sA-Ast

  • Hr kA-nxt xai-m-wAst
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • HD-xpr-ra (stp.n-ra)
  • Hr-sA-Ast (mri-imn)

 HD-xpr-ra (stp.n-imn) Hedjkheperre Setepenamun  (Chosen Of Amun)

 Hr-sA-Ast (mri-imn) Horsiese Meriamun  (Horus, Son Of Isis ; Beloved Of Amun)

Son of Sheshonq II. Osorkon II appointed him to the post of high priest of Amun at Thebes. Regarded as usurper because announced himself the pharaoh of Egypt under the reign of Libyan dynasty XXII and was supported by highly ranked Theban clans. Being de facto ruler of Egypt, Horsiese placed his son on the Theban throne as high priest of Amun. Horsiese’s tomb is located in the temple complex at Medinet Habu. On his burial place only canopies, ushebti and skull of Horsiese with partly cicatrized hole at the head, which may be due to either trepanation or injury caused by weapon, have been preserved.

15

860 - 855
Tablica genealogiczna
 

... dju ...

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw ...-di aw-...
 

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)

Unknown from name son of Horsiese I. Fragment of name preserved at the lower part of granite sarcophagus from Koptos is …dju…  (...di aw...). Put on the Theban throne by his father.

16

855 - 845
874-850 (Grimal)
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Nimlot (3)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-ra-mSa n Hwt-nn-nsw HAwti nmlt
 

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
nmlt Nimlot

Son of Osorkon II and Djedmutsenakh. The ruler of Thebes and Herakleopolis, high priest of Amun. Father of Karoma III and the ruler of Herakleopolis Djedptahiefankh.

17

840 - 835
850-825 (Grimal)
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Osorkon (2)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw imi-rA-mSa wr HAwti tA r-Dr.f sA-nsw rpat HAti(-a) wsrkn
 

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
wsrkn Osorkon

Son of Takelot II. In K. Kitchen opinion the high priest Osorkon  has nothing to do with the king Osorkon III, who being the son of Karoma III Meritmut, in  contrary to Osorkon, was not the son of Takelot. In D.A. Aston opinion in the year 11 of Takelot rule Osorkon made war expedition to Thebes, where Padibastet I announced himself a ruler, thus becoming Takelot’s rival. After victory campaign Osorkon regulated affairs at Thebes. Furthermore D.A Aston believes that the high priest Osorkon is identified with king Osorkon III, who came to the rule at Thebes in times of Sheshonq III.

18

835 - 816
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Horsiese (2) 

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra-nsw-nTrw Hr-sA-Ast

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun-Re (The First Prophet Of Amun-Re)
Hr-sA-Ast Horsiese

High Priest of Amun at Thebes during rule of Sheshonq III (XXII Dynasty) and Pedibastet I (XXIII Dynasty).

 19

800 - 775
Tablica genealogiczna
 

Takelot (2)

Hm-nTr tpi n imn tklt

Hm-nTr tpi n imn-ra Hem Netjer Tepi-en-Amun (The First Prophet Of Amun)
tklt Takelot

Son of Nimlot (3) - the prince of Herakleopolis, disclosed by Nile level indexes at Karnak dated to the year 23 of Padibastet I and year 6 of Sheshonq IV rule.

to XXI dynasty

to XXI dynasty

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