to XXI dynasty

XXIInd Dynasty 945 - 715
( Tanis, Bubastis, Herakleopolis )

to XXIII dynasty

 Dating of this dynasty, as well as the whole III IP, proposed by Prof. K.Kitchen seems to be the most reliable, although in light of D.A. Aston analyses, not completely convincing. Generally the IX century BC is one of the less studied of all periods of Egyptian history.  It seems to me that the recent state of knowledge, supported by dubious, often contradictory records, makes the precise presentation of political history of the III Intermediate Period impossible. The reason for free interpretation of facts is among other the partition of rule among a few, more or less, powerful political centers. Potent role play Thebes with the office of High Priest of Amun, held by high priests related to rulers of the dynasty XXII and often aspiring to rule all over the land. Also in areas of Herakleopolis and Hermopolis in the Central Egypt there are princes holding independent rule and  they happen to be nominated by legitimate pharaohs from Delta.
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1

945 - 924
948-927 (Dodson)
945-924 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
946/45-925/24 (von Beckerath)
943-923
(Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
931-910 (Redford)
  Tablica genealogiczna

Sheshonq I

wr-aA nmSwS SS(n)q , wr aA n mSwS wr n wrw SS(n)q

  • Hr kA nxt mri-ra sxai.f-m-niswt-r-smA-tAwi
  • xai-m-sxmti-mi-Hr-sA-Ast-r-sxtp-ntrw-m-mAat
  • sxm-pHti Hwi-pDt-9 wr-nxtw-(m)-tAw-nbw
  • HD-xpr-ra , (stp.n-ra , stp.n-imn ,stp.n-ptH)
  • SSnq (sA-bAstt mri-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw , mri-imn , nTr-HqA-iwnw) , Sesonchis (Man)
 HD-xpr-ra , (stp.n-ra) Hedjkheperre Setepenre  (Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
 SSnq mri-imn Sheshonq [Meri]Amon ([Beloved] Of Amon)

Governor of Bubastis descending from Libyan immigrants. The son of Nimlot and Tanetsepeh, he overtook the rule after Psusennes II death. He was energetic ruler who held control with support of army. He settled Nimlot, one of his sons, at Herakleopolis to hold rule over Central Egypt  in his behalf. Later he made his second son, Iuput, the high priest of Amun at Thebes, what actually meant re-unifying of the land. His daughter, Tashepenbastet was married to the third prophet of Amun at Thebes. Also for other influential offices all over the land were nominated loyal to Sheshonq people, which efficiently removed eventual threat for royal power. He made war expeditions to Syria and Palestine, conquered Jerusalem and some other cities in 925 BC. Asiatic expedition of Sheshonq is object of few speculations among modern historians and “parahistorians” that hold Bible as the main source of information and thus warp completely history and chronology of ancient Egypt. Building activities during Sheshonq I rule focused mainly at Thebes, Memphis and in the Delta - at Bubastis, Tanis, Tell Ballala.

a

 c.940
Tablica genealogiczna

Nimlot (2)

 nmlt

nmlt Nimlot

Son of Sheshonq I by Pentreshnes. Nimlot served as a commander of the army and is recorded as being a great chief of the foreigners, the Meshwesh." As governor of Hierakonpolis, Nimlot controlled Middle Egypt and the nomes of Upper Egypt. He reintroduced the custom of daily making offerings of bull in honor of god Harsafes. He contributed 60 Bulls to the shrine at Hierakonpolis.

2

924 - 889
927-892 (Dodson)
925/24-890 (von Beckerath)
924-889 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
922-888
(Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
910-896 (Redford)
    Tablica genealogiczna

Osorkon I

  • Hr kA nxt  mri-ra rdi-n-sw-itm-Hr-nst.f-r-grg-tAwi , kA nxt mri-ra
  • saA-xprw wr-biAwt
  • nxt xpS dr-pDt-9 , [nxt-xpS d]r-pDt-9 ity iTi-tAw-nbw
  • sxm-xpr-ra , (stp.n-ra , stp.n-imn)
  • wsrkn (mri-imn) , Osortchon (Man)
 sxm-xpr-ra Sekhemkheperre (Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re)
 wsrkn Osorkon

Granit torso foun at Byblos. Louvre MuseumSon of Sheshonq I and Karoma I. Relatively long reign of Osorkon is a period, if not of prosperity, then surely of economical stabilization. Many donations in behalf of temples of Amun, Re-Horachte, Hathor, Mut, Thot and Bastet are a good testimony for this. Building activities were run at Bubastis, Memphis, Atfih, el-Hibe and Abydos. Osorkon I was the father of king Takelot I and high priests of Amun  - Sheshonq II, Iuwlot and Smendes (III), also Shapenupet I, the first of the dynastic divine adorers of Amun, women-priests holding unlimited rule at Thebes.
 

3

890 - 889
895 (Dodson)
890-889 (Grimal)
c.890 (Arnold)

877-875 (
von Beckerath)
873
(Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
    Tablica genealogiczna

Sheshonq II

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • HqA-xpr-ra (stp-n-ra)
  • SS(nq) (mri-imn)
 HqA-xpr-ra (stp-n-ra) Heqakheperre Setepenre  (The Manifestation Of Re Rules ; Chosen Of Re)
 SS(nq) ([mri]-imn) Sheshonq [Meri]amon (Beloved Of Amon)

Golf funerary mask from royal tombs at Tanis. Cairo MuseumSon of Osorkon I by Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes II. Step-brother of Takelot I and high priests: Iuwlot and Smendes. In 924 he was made by his father the high priest of Amon at Thebes and short before his death – nominated the coregent and since then his name was inscribed in royal cartouche with all titles due to the king of Lower and Upper Egypt. However Sheshonq died unexpectedly and was succeeded by his step-brother, Takelot I. Sheshonq was the father of high priest Horsiese. He was buried in the antechamber of the Psusennes I tomb. His rich funerary equipment consists of gold funerary mask, silver sarcophagus, pectorals, amulets and other precious objects.

4

889 - 874
896-873 (Redford)
890-877 (
von Beckerath)
892-877 (Dodson)
889-874 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
887-874
(Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
    Tablica genealogiczna

Takelot I

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • wsr-mAat-ra
  • tklt , Takelothis (Man)
wsr-mAat-ra Wesermaatre
 tklt Takelot

The less known pharaoh of this dynasty and whole III Intermediate Period. None of known to us relics can be ascribed to him. The only proof of his existence is genealogy by priest Pasenhor in the stela of Serapeum, dated to 37 year of Sheshonq V rule and testifying his reign and descent - son of Osorkon I by queen Tashedchonsu.

5

874 - 850
877-838 (Dodson)
875-837 (
von Beckerath)
874-850 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)

874-835 (Aston)
873-844 (Redford)
872-842
(Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
    Tablica genealogiczna

Osorkon II

  • Hr kA nxt mri-mAat , kA nxt mri-mAat sxai-sw-ra-r-nsw-tAwi , kA nxt mri-mAat sxai-sw-ra-m-spd-tAwi , kA nxt xai-m-wAst 
  • smA-psSti-m i-sA-Ast , (dmD.f-sxmti-m-Htp , dmD-n.f-sxm ti-m-dhn[.f] , sHtp-nTrw-m-irt-mAat )
  • wr-pHti Hwi-Hftiw.f wsr-fAw , wr-pHti Hwi-mnTiw , wr-pHti Hwi-mntiw wsr-...
  • wsr-mAat-ra (stp-n-imn , stp-n-ra)
  • wsrkn (mri-imn) , (sA-bAstt mri-imn)
 wsr-mAat-ra (stp-n-imn) Wesermaatre Setepenamon  (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Chosen Of Amon)
 wsrkn (mri-imn) Osorkon Meriamon (Beloved Of Amon)

Grey granite head from Tanis. University Museum of Philadelphia Son of Takelot by queen Kapes, father of high priest Nimlot (II) and of king Takelot II. Osorkon built mainly at Tanis, where he extended the temple of Amun. At Bubastis he decorated temple of Bastet, he built also in other cities of Delta (Leontopolis, Pithom) and Memphis. His politic activities in Asia were focused on decreasing Asirian influences in Palestine. In the battle at Karkar in 853 BC army of Asiatic princes was supported by Egyptian contingent counting 1000 soldiers. Osorkon was buried at Tanis in the complex of the temple of Amun (tomb V), discovered in 1939 by P. Montet.

6

870 - 860
870-860 (Grimal)
867-857 (Dodson)

  Tablica genealogiczna  

Horsiese I

  • Hr kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • HD-xpr-ra stp-n-imn
  • Hr-sA-ist (mri-imn)
 HD-xpr-ra stp-n-imn Hedjkheperre Setepenamon  (Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re ; Chosen Of Amon)
 Hr-sA-ist (mri-imn) Horsiese Meriamon  (Horus, Son Of Isis ; Beloved Of Amon)

Son of Sheshonq II. Osorkon II appointed him to the post of high priest of Amon at Thebes. Regarded as usurper because announced himself the pharaoh of Egypt under the reign of Libyan dynasty XXII and was supported by highly ranked Theban clans. Being de facto ruler of Egypt, Horsiese placed his son on the Theban throne as high priest of Amon. Horsiese’s tomb is located in the temple complex at Medinet Habu. On his burial place only canopies, ushebti and skull of Horsiese with partly cicatrized hole at the head, which may be due to either trepanation or injury caused by weapon, have been preserved.

7

850 - 825
850-825 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
845-821 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

844-819 (Redford)
841-816 (
von Beckerath)
841-815 (Dodson)
838/833-812/807 (Aston)
    Tablica genealogiczna

Takelot II

  • Hr kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • HD-xpr-ra (stp.n-ra , nTr-HqA-wAst)
  • tklt (mri-imn , sA-bAstt mri-imn)
 HD-xpr-ra (stp.n-ra) Hedjkheperre Setepenre  (Bright Of The Manifestation Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
 tklt (mri-imn) Takelot Meriamon (Beloved Of Amon)

 Ascribing this pharaoh to any dynasty is a reason for instant arguments among scholars. In K.Kitchen opinion he was the sixth ruler of dynasty XXII while D. Aston regards him as the first ruler of dynasty XXIII and inserts him before Padibastet I. Moreover, he might have been the father of Osorkon III. Other scholars (including K. Kitchen) do not agree with this view and regard Osorkon, the high priest of Amon at Thebes, as the son of Takelot II, however he would not have anything to do with king Osorkon III. Yet, D. Aston believes they were one person so that he identifies the high priest Osorkon with the king Osorkon III. A few objects belonging to Takelot survived up to now, but there are no buildings erected by him. In K. Kitchen opinion Takelot II was buried in antechamber of his father’s tomb, Osorkon III, however D. Aston point of view is different.

8

825 - 773
841-803 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
838-798 (Dodson)
837-785 (
von Beckerath)
835-783/778 (Aston)
825-773 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
819-767 (Redford)
    Tablica genealogiczna 

Sheshonq III

  • Hr kA nxt mstiw-ra , kA nxt mstiw-(n)-ra , mri-ra sxai-... , kA nxt mri-mAat 
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-imn , stp.n-ra)
  • SSnq , SS(n)q , (mri-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw) (sA-bAstt mri-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw)
 wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-ra) Wesermaatre Setepenre  (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
 SSnq ([mri]-imn) Sheshonq  [Meri]Amon ([Beloved] Of Amon)

 Son of Takelot II by Karoma III. For unknown reasons he accepted Padibastet I as equal to him king of Egypt, additionally there were rulers of both dynasties, XXII and XXIII, reigning in Central Egypt. Also in the Delta territorial split into many principalities became remarkable. From the 49 year of this pharaoh’s rule come records of a famine. After long reign of Sheshonq remained numerous buildings in the Delta. In 1939 P. Montet discovered tomb (No. 5) of Sheshonq at Tanis.

9

773 - 767
786-780 (Dodson)
789-784 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
785-774 (
von Beckerath)
783/778-777/772 (Aston)
773-767 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
767-763 (Redford)
    Tablica genealogiczna 

Pimai ( Pami )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-imn , stp.n-ra)
  • pA-mAi (mri-imn)
wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-imn) Wesermaatre (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Setepenamon  (Chosen Of Amon)
 pA-mAi Pimai

Bronze statuette presents the king kneeling while making offerings, British MuseumSon of Sheshonq III and Tentamenopet, brother of Bakennefi, the prince and regent of Athribis and Heliopolis. A few relics are preserved only in the Delta. Group statue from Sais presents him in times before he came to the rule and names him “Governor of Libyans - Meshwesh”. It is possible that he was buried in tomb II in royal necropolis at Tanis.

10

767 - 730
783-746 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
780-743 (Dodson)
777/772-740/735 (Aston)
774-735 (
von Beckerath)
767-730 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
763-725 (Redford)
    Tablica genealogiczna 

Sheshonq V

  • Hr wsr-pHti kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • wsr-pHti
  • wsr-pHti , wr-biAwt
  • aA-xpr-ra , aA-xprw(-ra) , aA-xpr-ra (stp.n-ra)
  • SSnq , SS(n)q (sA-bAstt mri-imn nTr-HqA-wAst) , (mri-imn nTr-HqA-wAst)
 aA-xpr-ra Aakheperre (Great Is The Manifestation Of Re)
 SS(n)q Sheshonq 

Son and successor of Pami, as disclosed by stela of Serapeum, dated to the year 11 of his rule. There is no consensus as to definite ascribing this ruler to dynasty XXII or XXIII. In D. Aston opinion he would be the fourth or fifth ruler of dynasty XXIII and predecessor of Padibastet II. While Sheshonq reigned in the south, rule at Thebes was held by dynasty XXIII and kings-high priests Osorkon III and Takelot III, as well as Iuput II at Leontopolis. It is possible that before Sheshonq seized rule after his father’s death, he might have been high priest of Amun at Tanis.

11

730 - 715
733-715 (Dodson)
730/728-715/713 (Aston)
730-715 (Arnold)
720-711 (Redford)

  Tablica genealogiczna  

Osorkon IV

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • aA-xprw-ra (stp.n-imn)
  • wsrkn (mri-imn)
 aA-xprw-ra (stp.n-imn) Aakheperure Meriamon  (Great Is The Manifestation Of Re ; Beloved Of Re)
 wsrkn (mri-imn) Osorkon Meryamun (Beloved Of Re)

Son of Sheshonq V (or Pedubast II) by queen Tadibastet II. Osorkon’s reign falls on a period when Egypt was ruled simultaneously by four dynasties. Thus, dynasty XXIII is represented by Iuput II and Sheshonq VI, XXIV dynasty at Sais is represented by Tefnakht and Bakenrenef, Kushite dynasty XXV – Piankhi and Shabaka. Short after Osorkon had ascended the throne, Egypt was conquered by Kushite king, Piankhi. End of the rule coincides with invasion of Asirians in Asia. In 716 Sargon II reaches as far as to el-Arish by the Palestine-Egyptian borders.

to XXI dynasty

to XXIII dynasty

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