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Part 1 - The Pyramids of IIIrd & IVth Dynasties


Djoser's Step Pyramid

mastaba's base (stage M1):   71.5 m x 71.5 m
height:   8.4 m
pyramid's base (stage P2):   109 m x 121 m
height:   62.5 m
perimeter wall:   544.9 m x 277.6 m
height of wall:   10.5 m

An author and designer of Djoser’s funerary complex was his architect and vizier, Imhothep. Based upon successive stages of building work one can guess realization and changes in project of this structure which is located near gallery-tombs of Hetepschemwi , Nebre and Ninjether. First phase begun with building of  71,5 m long mastaba, with a tomb shaft of dimensions 7 x 7 m and 28 m deep, leading to mortuary chamber (primarily made of sandstone, later replaced with more hard pink granite). The chamber is accessible only through corridor, running down to mortuary temple north of mastaba and is plugged with heavy granite stopper in ceiling. Around the shaft run four gallery systems presenting Djoser and imaging the royal palace. From east side of mastaba into west direction run galleries to eleven over 30 m deep shafts. The five northern in turn were used for burial purposes: coffins, sarcophagi, mummy of a child. In the six southern 40 000 stone vases were found. Next enlargement of mastaba, adding 8,4 m to east, encompassed also shafts, hence untypical east-to-west orientation. Imhothep decided to change the project first into four stepped, then six stepped pyramid. To the first phase of building works of the normal mastaba belong within the complex so called southern tomb – an oblong 13 x 84 m mastaba. Mortuary temple (C) in north had not been completed and filled up at its northern side making a massive structure. Adding of northern courtyard (D) and inclusion of western massifs enlarged this complex so that it gained dimensions of 545 x 278 m. It was surrounded by a high temenos wall, laid with limestone of Tura, one entrance doorway and fourteen dummy doorways. In 1821 baron von Minutoli found in Djoser’s burial place a gild skull and soles while in 1926 J. Ph. Lauer discovered left foot and other parts of skeleton – arm bone and ribs.   More...>>>



Sekhemkhet's Step Pyramid

height:   70 m
side of base
:   c.120 m
burial chamber: 8.9 m x 5.22 m  x 4.55 m
perimeter wall:  
262 m x 185 m
after enlargement:  
c.500 m x 185 m

The mortuary complex might have been designed by Imhothep, the architect of Djoser. It had been left unfinished and the ruins were discovered by Zahi Goneim in 1951. Of the enclosure wall, originally of dimensions 185 x 262 m and extended later so that it achieved dimensions of the Djoser’s mortuary complex, of total seven steps planned, only the lowest one had been completed. Below the pyramid there is 80 m long corridor with 32 m deep funerary chamber at its end. At the moment of discovery sarcophagus was sealed but empty. From the corridor runs a passage to a gallery with 132 chambers. At the bottom of one of the shafts running from funerary corridor there was a foundation deposit – gold armlets and box for lip paint. Mastaba localized south of the pyramid comprises so called south tomb with a burial of child.   More...>>>    



Khaba's Layer Pyramid
Zawiyet el-Aryan

side of base:   84 m
c.40 m
slope of core shell:   68o
burial chamber:   3.63 m (l) x 2.65 m (w) x 3.0 m (h)

In Arabic local people used to call this pyramid "Haram el-Meduwara", The Round Pyramid. Egiptologists call it The Layer Pyramid. This pyramid was first investigated and summarily described by Perring in 1839. The pyramid, projected with only 5 (to 7) steps and, originally, c.40 meters of height. Only 16 meters of the whole height still remained. The base side is 84 m, the burial chamber, found empty at the dept of 26 meters. The core of pyramid was built with internal accretion layers - hence the pyramid's name. Few meters north of the pyramid's north-east corner it's reached a pit going c.80 meters. North of the pyramid the american expedition discovered a large mastaba, identified as Z-500 on the map of the necropolis and were found eight alabaster vessels with the name of Khaba. More...>>>


"Lepsius Pyramid" No.1
Abu Rawash


Ruins of a very puzzling monument which Lepsius expedition had discovered and identified as pyramid. When Vyse, Perring and Lepsius visited this site, mass of brick masonry reached a height of almost 20 meters. When Swelim began to work on them in the 1980, they had already fallen down almost completely. Swelim dates this step pyramid to the end of the IIIrd Dynasty and thinks it probably belonged to Huni. This is very controversial theory. More scholars dates pyramid to V or VI Dynasties. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.I


Huni's (?) Pyramid
Zawiyet el-Meiyitin

side of core base:   c.22.4 m
slope of core shell:   80o

This small pyramid, about 7 kilometers south of administrative center of Middle Egypt, Minya, is the only one that is located on the east bank of the Nile. The pyramid, whose ruins today reach a heightof scarcely 5 meters, was built of limestone bound with mortar made of mud, sand and lime. In 1911 the pyramid was investigated by Raymond Weill and, later, Philippe Lauer. This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).


Huni's (?) Pyramid

side of core base:   c.18.2 m
slope of core shell:   c.80o


The remains of the pyramid in Sinki, near the modern village of Naga el-Khalifa (about 5 miles south of Abydos), were discovered in 1883 by Charles Wilbour and Gaston Maspero. The ruins now reach a height of about 4 meters. Plan of the step pyramid with the remains of 4 ramps for the delivery of construction materials (after Dreyer and Swelim). This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).


Huni's (?) Pyramid

side of core base:   c.18.2 m
slope of core shell:   c.80o
actually height of core:   14 m

Remains of a pyramid stand near Naqada. Its core, about 14 meters high, was built of rough pieces of limestone mortared with clay and sand. In 1895 Petrie and Quibell conducted and investigation here. Pyramid was built end of IIIth Dynasty or beginning of IVth Dynasty. This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).

draft of plan and view of ruin   reconstruction of steps pyramid


Huni's (?) Pyramid

side of base:   c.18.2 m
present heigth of ruins:   8.25 m
slope of core shell:   c.77o

Pyramid at el-Kuhla, not far from the village of Naga el-Mamariya and about 6 km north of the Hierakonpolis, stands of the west bank of the Nile. It is built of rough pieces of limestone held together with mortar made of clay, mud, sand and small bits of limestone. Perring and Vyse were the first investigate and describe the pyramid in 1837, when it was still about 12 meters high. This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).


Huni's (?) Pyramid

side of base:   c.18.2 m
present heigth of ruins:   5.5 m
slope of core shell:   c.77o

This pyramid, built of rough pieces of reddish sandstone, is located near the village of Naga el-Goneima on the west bank of the Nile, about 5 km north of Edfu. Its west side runs parallel of the river. This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).


Huni's Pyramid

side of base:   c.23.4 m
slope of core shell:   82o 30' and 77o
present heigth of ruins
5.1 m

This Pyramid was built of rough pieces of granite bound with clay mortar, on a rock plateau that had been prepared for it. The pyramid was discovered in 1909 by French expedition. Near the pyramid, Henri Gauthier found a large, conical object made of granite, on whose base was an inscription with the name of Huni. Pyramid was dated in the period from Sekhemkhet to Snofru. None of them has any aboveground chambers or underground parts. This pyramid is ascribed to pharaoh Huni, as he is thought to possess numerous step cenotaphs (W.Kaiser i G.Dreyer).


Snefru's Pyramid

side of base:   c.25 m
slope of core shell:  

This pyramid was discovered by Borchardt, after the turn of the XX century. The ruins are barely 7 meters high. The pyramid, whose four-stepped core was built of smaller blocks of local limestone held together by mortar made of clay and sand. On some of the blocks the remains of builder's inscriptions were found. The pyramid has no chambers either inside it.



Snefru's Pyramid

originally height:   92 m
base length:   c.144 m
slope:   51o 50' 35"
burial chamber:   5.9 x 2.65 m (height: 5.05 m)
perimeter wall:   236 x 218 m

The construction initiated by a last ruler of the Dynasty III, pharaoh Huni, and finished by his son and successor – Snefru. Its eight-stepped core, sometimes thought to be a primary construction, was built of carved stones then encased in sloping walls. They had been filled in with limestone blocks so that the building turned into the first regular pyramid. It was finally covered with marvelous facing of polished white limestone. Today’s ruined appearance results from stripping, yet in ancient times, both of the outer coating and of blocks filling up gaps between steps. The burial chamber with its walls lined in white limestone tiles possessed a corbelled roof, composed of seven steps. It was for the first time in Egyptian stone architecture that the corbelled roof had been applied. Recent “endoscopic” research revealed presence of remains of a corridor just above the still existing one, which leads to two identical small chambers. The chambers were probably intended for reducing stresses produced by walls and protecting the horizontal passage beneath.  More...>>>


Cult Pyramid

base:   26.8 x 26.8 m
length of corridor:   6.7 m


This pyramid was located on the south side of proper pyramid, slightly west from its axis and inside of a complex surrounded with wall. Entrance located on the north was later replaced with vertical shaft of dimensions 1.2 x 3.5 m . It was connected with horizontal passage 6.7 m long cut in bedrock leading to the burial chamber. The corridor was constructed with convected ceiling.


Snefru's Bent Pyramid

originally height:   105 m
present height:   101.15 m
side of base:   188 m
slope up to 49,07 m:   54o 27' 44''
slope above 49 m:   43o 22'

length of causeway:   704 m

Snefru started building of his pyramid soon after moved his residence and necropolis from Maidum to Dahshur, between 12 and 15 regnal years. During building works, due to increasing mass of the structure, the ground had moved causing subsequently destruction of the chambers’ system. As the ground sunk the pyramid’s angle had to be reduced at the height of 49,1 m (from 55 o to 44,3 o) resulting in its characteristic bent shape. Hence its recent name - Rhomboidal or Bent, Blunt Pyramid. The pyramid has a double system of chambers. The lower one is accessible through a corridor leading down from northern side (B) until about 22,5 m under the ground level. It consists of a shaft-like antechamber, 12,6 m high and a chamber 17,2 m high with corbelled roof and 15,3 m high chimney.   More...>>>


Cult Pyramid on the southern side of Snofru's Bent Pyramid

side of base:   53 m
height:   32.5 m

The entrance led from the north and turned into a corridor that at first descended and then ascended and came out in a small, corbel-vaulted chamber not quite 7 meters high. Many scholars consider this corridor to be the model of the Great Gallery in Khufu's pyramid in Giza. At the foot of the pyramid on the east side, there was also a small offering place with an alabaster altar, at whose sides stood two 5 meters high limestone monoliths bearing the ruler's name and titles.  More...>>>

ground plan and north-south sectional view after A.Fakhry (bottom)


Snefru's Red Pyramid

side of base:   220 m
slope:   43o 22'
originally height:   105 m
burial chamber:   4.18 x 8.55 m (height: 14.67 m)


A pyramid where the ruler was buried had been presumably erected of local red sandstone. The building works were started in the year 29 of the rule of Snefru. From an entrance at the height of 28 m on the north side descends a 62,6 m long corridor, which next runs 7,4 m horizontally and enters two consecutive vestibule (both of dimensions 3,7 x 8,4 m at the bottom, 12,3 m high, corbelled roof). At a height of 8 m in the second one was found enter to the funerary chamber (4,2 x 8,4m, 14,7 m high, corbelled roof). Of the largely robbed equipment (traces of a fire) only scant reminders of the mummy of Snefru were found    More...>>>


The Great Pyramid of Khufu


side of base:   230.33 m
height:   146.59 m
slope 51o 50' 40''
length of causeway:   739.8 m

Great Gallery:
length:   47.85 m
height:   8.48...8.74 m
slope:   26o16'40''

Board Pits:
length:   52 m
width:   7.5 m
depth:   8 m

Queen's Chamber:
length:   5.76 m
width:   5.23 m
height:   6.26 m

King's Chamber:
length:   10.49 m
width:   5.42 m
height:   5.84 m

Building of the proper pyramid around the natural core of rock was managed by Hemon (Hemiunu) and Ankhhaf . Originally it was composed of 210 layers of stone blocks and was 146,6 m high. Length of sides was 230 m, angle of slope 51,5 o. Interior of the monument is made of locally gained stone while outer and upper layers of limestone of Tura. Totally the structure was composed of 2 500 000 blocks of stone, weighing together 7 000 000 tons. The passage (H) leading from the northern entrance (I) to rock chamber (C) located about 30m beneath the ground level is initially descending at the length of 105 m, next runs 9 m horizontally. From the chamber leads another16,4 m long corridor, however its function remains unknown. At the length of 28,2 m of descending passage begins ascending corridor (G) which ends after 38 m in the 2,1 m wide, 46,7 m long and 8,5 m high Grand Gallery (E). From the Grand Gallery runs 38,2 m long horizontal passage (F) to the so called “Queen’s Chamber” (B) with two-side slopped roof, niche and so called “air tunnels” (D). As the horizontal passage branches out there is a shaft 58,4 m deep which meets the descending corridor near the rock chamber. Next to the gallery there is a short passage leading through granite chamber with a dropped down stone block and one more passage entering the proper one funerary chamber (A), cased with pink granite, with 5 cavities above alleviating the two-side slopped roof. There is a granite sarcophagus in this chamber, however no traces of burial have been stated. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.IV   More...>>>



Khufu's Cult Pyramid - G1d


slope of walls:   ok.51o 45'
base:   21.6 m2
height:   ok. 13.7 m
chamber: 8.2 x 3.0 m (wys.: 2.7 m)

A short time ago, in winter 1992-93, Z.Hawass discovered, near the southeast corner of the Great Pyramid, the ruins of the small cult pyramid, including fragments of its pyramidion.  This pyramid was totally ruined with only a few core and casing blocks remaining in situ along the east and south sides. The substructure was cut into the bedrock. The substructure was simple, composed of a descending passage which enters a 9-foot deep rectangular chamber with slightly inward sloping walls. More...>>>


Hetepheres I's Pyramid - G1a

base:   45.5 x 47.4 x 46.5 x 45.7 m
height:   c.29 m
slope:   c.51o 50'

The northernmost, was earlier attributed to queen Meritit but today Mark Lehner considers instead to be the tomb of queen Hetepheres I. The core of G1a, which oryginally consisted of three or perhaps even four steps, was built of yellowish gray limestone. The entrance in the north wall is located slightly above the base of the pyramid. The descending corridor turns to the right and comes out in a small burial chamber that was cut into the rock and surfaced with limestone blocks. A sarcofagus was not found in it. Before the east wall of the pyramid stood a small mortuary temple. South of G1a, a pit for a boat burial was dug in the rock, but no traces of the boat have been found. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.V More...>>>


Meritit's Pyramid - G1b

base:   47.8 x 49.4 x 48.2 x 47.1 m
slope of walls:   c.51o 50'
slope of descending corridor:   33o 10'
burial chamber: 3.95 x 3.15 m (height: 2.95 m)

The pyramid is resembles G1a. No remains of a buried boat were found. Hence it is not clear which queen was buried there - it may have been Meritit, who was probably one of Khufu's older wives. She is thought to be the mother of prince Kawab and perhaps made the transition from Snefru's harem to Khufu's. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.VI  More...>>>


Henutsen's Pyramid - G1c

base: 45.5 x 46.7 x 46.8 x 45.2 m
slope of walls:   c.52o 40'
slope of descending corridor:   27o 30'
burial chamber: 3.72 x 2.95 m (height: 2.70 m)

The southernmost of queens'es pyramids, G1c, is thought to be that of queen Henutsen. According to G.Reisner, its casing remained unfinished. In many respects its architecture resembles that of the other two pyramids. In opinion some scholars, this pyramid was not part of the oryginal plan of Khufu's complex. If Stadelmann is corect in thinking that the double mastaba belonged to prince Khufukhaf before he became king and was known as Khafre, the letter was probably the builder of pyramid G1c. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.VII   More...>>>


Djedefre's Pyramid
Abu Rawash

side of base:   106.2 m
originally height:   57 m...67 m
present height:   11.4 m
slope:   48o...52o
length of corridor:   49 m
shaft:   21 x 9 m (deep: c.20 m)
length of causeway:   c.1500 m

In the first years of the twentieth century were systematic investigations begun by French archeologists, Emile Chassinat and Pierre Lacau, next Pierre Montet and  Maragioglio and Rinaldi. Now, excavations are doing by a French-Swees team by Michel Valloggia. The pyramid rises on a rock outcropping about 150 m above the Nile Valley. Its core consists partly of the reshaped rock subsoil and partly of blocks of local limestone. The pyramid was probably never completed. In the north wall there is a trench containing the remains of a descending corridor whose aligned approximately along the pyramid's north-south axis and leads to the burial chamber. During investigations inside the pyramid's substructure, Petrie discovered a fragment of pink granite he thought was part of the sarcophagus. More...>>>


Cult Pyramid (?) on the south-west side of Djedefre's Pyramid
Abu Rawash

side of base:   60 m

 The meaning of this, standing near southwest corner of Djedkare's pyramid  structure, is also unclear. Stadelmann and some archeologists think it is a cult pyramid, but this normally stood at the south-east corner. Other archeologists, such as Maragioglio and Rinaldi believe that it is a pyramid belonging to Djedefre's consort Khentetenka.


Cult Pyramid (?) on the south-east of Djedefre's Pyramid
Abu Rawash


Pyramid discovered in 2002 by French-Swiss archaeologic expedition. Its locationnext to north-east corner of Djedefre's pyramid suggests its cult destination. However presence of underground sructure (4m-long funerary shaft) and remainders of sarcophagus indicate a burial place. According to Z. Hawasss in this pyramid was buried royal family - king's wife and princesses. Additionaly, also elements of queen's burial equippment were found. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.III


Khafre's Pyramid
wr-xai=f-ra , wr-n-xai=f-ra

side of base:   215.25 m
height:   143.5 m
slope:   53o 10'
burial chamber:   14.15 x 5 m (height: 6.83 m)
subsidiary chamber 10.41 x 3.12 m (height: 2.61 m)
height of lower corridor:   1.19 m  
length of causeway:   494.6 m

In 1817, Giovanni Caviglia had already sought in vain to make his way into the pyramid. Only a year later did Giovanni Belzoni succeed in getting in; he discovered the so-called upper entrance and also investigated the underground part of the pyramid. The older of the two entrance is now located in the ground about thirty meters north of the pyramid. Called the first or lower entrance, it is hacked completely out of the rock subsoil and opens into corridor that at first descends, then runs horizontally, and finally ascends. Near the middle of the horizontal part of the corridor, a short passageway leads to a small room where part of the burial equipment was probably stored. The upper entrance, opening in the pyramid's north wall about twelve meters above ground level, gives access to a passageway lined in blocks of pink granite that at first descends and then runs horizontally after it reaches the base of the pyramid. At the point where it begins to run horizontally, there is a barrier of pink granite. After this the horizontal part of the passageway continues south to the burial chamber, which lies on the vertical axis of the pyramid. Exept for its ceiling, the burial chamber is completely out of the rock. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.VIII  More...>>>


Cult Pyramid by Khafre's Pyramid - G2a

side of base:   20.9 m
slope:   53o 54'

This completely destroyed pyramid on the south side of Khafre's tomb had its own perimeter wall. Its substructure is simple, consisting of a descending corridor and an undeground chamber. In the chamber were found bits of wood, carnelian beads, fragments od animal bones and covers for vassels. Stadelmann thinks that its a cult pyramid. Opposite Maragioglio and Rinaldi, they conclude that one of Khafre's consorts was buried in the pyramid.


Baka's Pyramid
Zawiyet el-Aryan
bA-kA-ra(u) , sbA-...(b)

base:   c.200 m
length of side of core:   c.180 m
length of passage:   106 m
perimeter wall (north-south orientation!):   c.465 x 420 m

In the middle of the structure this unfinished pyramid is an enormous, east-west oriented trench. On its floor lie large blocks of limestone and granite - the foundation of the burial chamber. In the western part of the trench stands an oval sarcophagus made of pink granite. Around the unfinished structure are the remains of a stone perimeter wall whose ground plan is rectangular and oriented north-south. Some Egyptologists date the pyramid to the IIIrd Dynasty and believe it belonged to Nebka or Neferkarae, although since the ruler's name is written in cartouche, his reign must have followed Huni's. Lauer dated the pyramid to the period between Snefru's reign and that of Menkaure. Maragioglio and Rinaldi attributed the structure to either Baufre or Djedefhor. Stadelmann dates the unfinished structure to the IVth Dynasty and he reads the possessor's name as Baka.. More...>>>


Menkaure's Pyramid

base:   102.2 x 104.6 m
height:   66.45 m
slope:   51o 20' 25''
descending passage:   31.7 x 1.05 m (height: 1.2 m)
parelled chamber:   3.63 x 3.16 m
antechamber:   14.2 x 3.84 m (height: 4.87)
burial chamber:   6.59 x 2.62 m (height: 3.43 m)

length of causeway:   608 m

The smallest pyramid of the "great three" in Giza stands not far from the Nile and is called "Menkaure is divine". Its core consists of limestone blocks quarried nearby. Up to a height of about fifteen meters, the casing is made of pink granite, while farther up it was probably made of limestone. The entrance is on the axis of the north wall, at a height of about 4 meters above ground level. Only part of the descending corridor that led through the pyramid's masonry consisted of pink granite. Below the level of the pyramid's base a passageway called the lower corridor climbed through the rock and came out in a room whose walls were provided with niches. At its end there is granite barrier made of 3 plugging blocks that were lowered after its completion. The corridor then continues at a slight downward angle and comes out in the east-west oriented upper antechamber. Upper corridor is also oriented north-south, beginning in the masonry at level of the pyramid's base, it first climbs, and then becomes a horizontal passageway, finally reaching the upper chamber at north wall.. In the upper antechamber Vyse discovered the remains of an anthropoid wooden coffin bearing Menkaure's name and containing human bones dating less than 2 thousand years old. From the floor of the upper antechamber, a granite corridor leads downward to the burial chamber. The burial chamber has rectangular ground plan and lies about 15.5 meters under the level of pyramid. On the chamber's west wall Vyse found a beautiful basalt sarcophagus decorated with niches and a lid ornamented. The ship "Beatrice", which was taking sarcophagus from Egypt to Great Britain in 1838, shipwrecked and sank between Malta and Spain. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.IX  More...>>>


Pyramid G3a by Menkaure's Pyramid
( Khamerernebti II's - by G.Reisner )

side of base:   c.44 m
height:   c.28.4 m
slope:   52o 15'

The entrance to this easternmost and largest of the small pyramids near the tomb of Menkaure, was in the middle of the north wall, not far above ground level. The burial chamber was dug out of the rock under the center of the pyramid's base. In front of the pyramid's east side stood a small, east-west oriented mortuary temple. G.Reisner hypothesized that G3a belonged to Menkaure's consort Khamerernebti II. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.XII


Pyramid G3b of unknown queen by Menkaure's Pyramid


side of base:   31.24 m

Pyramid G3b differs from G3a in certain details, for example, in the placement of the descending corridor and the lack of a barrier. In the pink granite sarcophagus, which stood against the west wall of the burial chamber, the bones of a young woman were found. the small brick temple in front of the pyramid's west wall is, in contrast to that of G3a, oriented north-south. This pyramid probably belonged to one of Menkaure's consorts. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.XI


Pyramid G3c of unknown queen by Menkaure's Pyramid

side of base:   31.24 m

Pyramid G3c never had a complete casing. As in G3b, its burial chamber was under the northwest part of the pyramid and was not finished. No traces of a burial were found in it, which contrasts with the clear evidence of a cult in the small mortuary temple in front of the east side of the pyramid. the brick temple is oriented in the same way as pyramid G3b. This pyramid probably belonged to one of Menkaure's consorts. On Lepsius Pyramid List - L.X


Khentkawes I's Step Tomb

base of first step:   45.8 x 45.5 m
height of first step:   c.10 m
slope of first step:   74o
base of second step:   28.5 x 21 m
height of second step:   c.7 m
burial chamber:   3.95 x 4.65 m

This large two-step tomb structure near Menkaure's valley temple by some early Egyptologists was thought to be  the fourth pyramid in Giza. The superstructure consists of two steps. The lower, which has the form of low, truncated pyramid, was built by cutting and preparing the rock outcropping. It has an almost square ground plan, oriented north-south. Originally, the surfaces of all four side walls were decorated with niches resembling false doors. A huge gateway of pink granite, provided access to the tomb from the southeast. In the antechamber there were entrances into rooms on the west and the north. The substructure has an original architecture. Ii includes six small storerooms near the burial chamber, which has a pair of false doors.


Shepseskaf's Mastabat Fara'un
South Saqqara

base:   99.6 x 74.4 m
height:   18.7 m
slope of casing:   61o - 65o
length of causeway:   c.760 m

Son and successor of Menkaure, he had not built a pyramid tomb for himself, instead he erected a huge mastaba at South Sakkara (Mastabat el-Fara'un). Actual dimensions (without outer layer) are 99,6 x 74,4 m. The mastaba in its shape remains those of the dynasty I at North Sakkara. From north side runs descending corridor 20,95 m long (including chambers and traps) next runs 19,5 m horizontally and finally enters antechamber of the tomb. Dimensions of the vestibule: 3,1 m x 8,3 m, two-side slopped roof begins at the height of 5,6 m. Corridor with niches is 10,6 m long and passes to the funerary chamber which dimensions are 3,85 x 7,79 m, at the height of 4,9 m begins the two-side slopped roof. In the funerary chamber reminders of the sarcophagus were found. In the mortuary temple (chapel) were discovered reminders of diorite statue of Shepseskaf    More...>>>

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