Ivory and flint
knife from Gebel el-Arak. Naqada II.
Traces of human
presence fund on his oasis go back to Paleolithic and neolith. In
result of research conducted on northern coast of the Moeris lake by
Gertrude Caton-Thompson i Eva W.Gardner in 1924-26 there were found
a dozen or so chambers pointing at early-agricultural settlements.
Canton-Thompson distinguished also so called Fayum B culture that
she believed was chronologically next in this area. Following
examinations, however, proved that Fayum B war earlier and is just a
reminder from epi-paleolithic populations. During next years many
expeditions were carrying out explorations in the area of Fayum
Oasis thus making Canton-Thompson’s conclusions more and more
It seems that Fayum A is the Oldest Neolithic culture in Egypt. The
earliest no calibrated C14 date is 6480±170 B.P., while
the newest is5540±70 B.P. This data allow to calculate that this
culture was developing around 5300/5200-4500 BC and settling down in
the oasis in times of later phase of neolith took a
phase of neolith in Fayum oasis area timed from 5410±110 B.P. to
4820±100 B.P. which means that it was developing around 600 years
and places it between 4400-3800 BC.
Beni-Salame is an archaeological site placed ca. 60 km north-west
from Cairo and discovered by Hermann Junker while making
explorations in 1927-28. The Merimde is considered by some scholars
to be older than Fayum A. The oldest date obtained for the layer I
is 5890±60 B.P and the latest from layer V is V 5590±60 B.P. One can
assume that this complex was developing in first half of Vth
millennium ca. 5000/4900-4500/4400 BC.
El Omari is a
complex of archaeological sites north of Heluan and named after
Egyptian geologist Amin el-Omari who discovered it. Excavations,
started in 1925 by Paul Bovier-Lapierre and continued in 1943 by
Ferdinand Debono, showed presence of Low Egyptian culture at this
area. Its dating and place in relative chronology are not precise
and clear. 6 carbon samples from younger phases provide information
for B.P. dating of 5740±80 i 4790±60. The Omari culture developed
thus between 4700/4600 – 4400.
site located in southern suburbs of today’s Cairo. It became subject
of examinations in 1930-35 carried out by Mustafa Amer and Oscar
Menghin from Cairo University. On breakthrough of seventies and
eighties examinations on this area were carried out by
Egyptian-Italian mission. The Maadi culture, named also Lower
Egyptian, later was connected to the Buto site and then recognized
as culture comprising not just Delta but also the whole northern
Egypt. Dating from previous search from the Maadi settlement
oscillate between 5055±55 B.P. and 4730±60 B.P which after
calibration points at years 3900-3600 B.C.
Deir Tasa is
eponymic site of still controversial culture of Tasa, located on
eastern bank of the Nile and discovered by Guy Brunton in 1927. On a
graveyard there were found 40 graves belonging to Neolithic culture
of the Upper Egypt.
Tasa culture is considered as initial phase of the Badari
settlement. In 1985 Kaiser showed that Tasa is original culture
different from Badari and begun earlier. In his opinion, despite
lack of any radiocarbon dating for this site, this culture should be
placed in last quarter of the 5th millennium.
site, is located on eastern bank of Nile and examined by Guy Brunon
in 1922-25. half of 650 tombs found then is dated back to the Nagada
I-III culture. The remaining ones, that did not have their
equivalents at the moment of discovery, gave reason to mark off the
Badari is best known at the northern part of Upper Egypt, the area
between Nubt and Abydos. All over remaining places of Upper Egypt it
coexisted with Nagada culture at least in its later phase. Based on
radiocarbon dating from Hemamija (5110±160 B.P. 5290±130B.P.) Fekri
Hassan suggested that Badari culture existed ca. 4400 a 3800 B.C.
However doubtless coexistence of Badari and Nagada I Gould rather
point at 4100-3800/3700 B.C.
Site of first
phase of Nagada culture located 9 km north-east from Abydos and
examined In 1899-1901 by David Randall-MacIver and Arthur
C.Mace. Graves on two graveyards date to all phases of Nagada
culture although most of them belong to earlier ones.
explored by Gerald A.Wainwright in 1910-11 and located at the area
of Fayum, ca. 5 km east from pyramid of Meidum. There were 250
graves from pre- and early-dynastic periods found there.
Complex of vast sites located on western bank of Nile, 27 km. north
from Luxour, opposite to Wadi Hammamat mouth. Most important works
on this area were done by William.F.Petrie in1895. Next was Jacques
de Morgan who in 1896 described mastaba from I dynasty dated to
Aha's rule. Following excavations were carried out by Thomas R. Hays
in 1975-77 , Fekri Hassan in 1978 and Claudio Barocas in 1978-84.
Most of radiocarbon dating for Nagada I and II come from main
predynastic centers at Nagada and Hierakonpolis. Graveyards at
Nagada provided among others dates: 5744±300 B.P. i 4720±310 B.P.
Both come from graves dated sequentially at 34-38 and 58-67. The
absolute date when Nagada culture started is 3800 B.C. while the
ending falls tt beginnings of dynasty I rule.