to XIX dynasty

XXth Dynasty 1188 - 1069
( Thebes, Pe-Ramesses )

to XXI dynasty

How the XXth Dynasty gained power remains unclear. The only indications of the political events at this date derive from a stele erected on the island of Elephantine by its first ruler, Setkhnakht, and an account written down in the Great Harris Papyrus from the biggining of the reign of Ramesses IV. On the stele, Sethnakht relates how he expelled rebels who on their flight left behind the gold, silver, and copper they had stolen from Egypt and with which day had wanted to hire reinforcements among the Asiatics. The papyrus describes how a state of lawlessness and chaos had broken out in Egypt because of forces from 'outside'; after several years in which there was no one who ruled, a Syrian called Iarsu (a made-up name meaning 'one who made himself' ) seized power, and his confederates plundered the country; they treated the gods like ordinary human beings and no longer sacrificed in the temples. From these texts  we may perhaps conclude that, after the death of Taweseret, Bay had tried to seize power and may even have succeeded for a brief time until he was expelled by Sethnakht.
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1

1188 - 1186
1200-1198 (Drioton, Redford)
1196-1194 (Arnold)
1192-1190 (Parker)

1190-1187 (Helck, Krauss)
1188-1186 (Grimal)
1187-1185 (Dodson, Kitchen)

1186-1184 (Málek, Shaw, Hornung)
1186/85-1183/82 (von Beckerath)
1184-1182 (Wente)

  Tablica genealogicznaMumia

Sethnakht

  • Hr kA nxt wr-pHti
  • twt-xaw-mi-TA-Tnn
  • sxm-xpS dr-[Hr]w.f , Hwi-pDt-9 an-m-nsyt
  • wsr-xaw-ra (stp.n-ra , mri-imn , stp.n-ra mri-imn)
  • stX-nxt(w) (mrr-imn mri-ra , mrr-imn , mrr-imn-ra , mrr-ra mri-imn)

 wsr-xaw-ra (stp.n-ra) Weserkhaure Setepenre  (Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)

stX-nxt(w) (mrr-imn)  Sethnakht Mereramonre (Seth Is Victorious ; Beloved Of Amon-Re)

   

Origin of Sethnakht is uncertain. Possibly his father was one of Ramesses II sons, unknown by name brother of Merenptah. He accessed the throne after death of queen Taweseret. It was the time when anarchy has set in the land. Sethnakht became famous for usurping numerous buildings erected by his predecessors. Himself, presumably he founded two chapels at Deir el-Medina. He died short after he proclaimed himself king and restored order in Egypt. He was buried in a tomb (also the usurped one) of queen Taweseret – the tomb KV14 in the Valley of the Kings. The king’s mummy was discovered in KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II. Setnakht was father of Ramesses III.

2

1186 - 1154
1198-1166 (Drioton, Redford)
1194-1163 (Arnold)
1190-1158 (Parker)

1187-1156 (Helck, Krauss)
1186-1154 (Grimal)
1185-1154 (Kitchen)
1185-1153 (Dodson)
1184-1153 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Hornung)
1183/82-1152/51 (von Beckerath)
1182-1151 (Gardiner, Wente)
  Tablica genealogicznaMumia

Ramesses III

  • Hr kA-nxt (aA-nsyt , mAi-pHti nxt-a nbxpS HqA-sTtyw , swsx-kmt wsr-xpS nxt-a smA-THnwiw , dm-Hnwti mn-ib wr-pHti-Hr-bAwi-n-qn) , nb-Hbw-sd-mi-tA-Tnn , mnx-mnw sHtp-nb-r-Dr-m-nA(y).h-Axwt , kA-nxt-adm-Hnwti mn-ib wr-pHti-Hr-bAwi-n-qnw , aSA-mnw , sA-imn-... , kA-pHti sxm-xpS nxt-a nb-nrw-m-tAw-xAswt-fnxw-THnw , THn-xaw , sxm-pHti hd-Hfnw dx-nA-pHw-sw-dmD-(Xr)-Tbwj.f , an-Hr-srx-mi-sA-Ast , biti-wr-mnw wr-biAwt mH--ipt-swt-Hr-rn.f , saA-xaw-mi-Axti wbn.f-anx-rxyt , an-m-nsw-mi-itm mri.tw.f-Ab.tw.f-mi-Hm-n-ra , nb-aHaw-mi-it.f-ra
  • wr-Hbw-sd-mi-tA-Tnn , wsr-pHti-m-iti.f-mnTw sksk-pDt-9-dr-m-tA.sn , iri-mAat-m-psDt sHAb-rAw-pr-ra-nb , [wr-Hbw-sd-mi-tA-Tnn ?] ptpt-THnw iw-m-iwnw-Hr-st.sn
  • wsr-rnpwt-mi-itm , nTr-m-pri.f-m-Xt swHt-iqrt-sbqt-n-Hr-Axti , an-Tl-m-mswt-nTrw-nTrwt qAb-aAbt.sn , qnw nb-xpSwi iri-tAS-r-mri.f-m-sA.f-xftiw.f
  • wsr-mAat-ra (mri-imn)
  • ra-msi-sw (HqA-iwnw)

 wsr-mAat-ra (mri-imn) Wesermaatre Meriamun (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Beloved Of Amon)

 ra-msi-sw Ramesses (Born Of Re)

ra-msi-sw (HqA-iwnw) Ramesses Heka Iunu (Born Of Re ;  Ruler Of Heliopolis)
   

Son of Sethnakht by Teje-Mereniset. He warred with Libyans in year 5 and 11 of his rule. Rebelling Libyan tribes had been brought into line, their cattle reinforced donations of the temple of Amun at Karnak while some of the tribes were displaced presumably to Balkan and Egeian territories. He made two successful campaigns in Asia where in both inland and naval battle near outlet of the South Delta he defeated invaders’ attack and thus saved Egypt from foreign rule. Captured invaders were included to Egyptian army, some of them founded in Asia the country of Philistines. Many accounts are preserved as to building activities of Ramesses III. He erected among others magnificent mortuary temple with palace at Medinet Habu, started  works at the area of the sacral complex at Karnak. Also at Edfu, Buhen, Kom Ombo, Koptos, el Kab and many more places there are numerous monuments built by Ramesses III. In year 32 of his rule a harem conspiracy was plotted to draw the king aside of the rule. He was to be replaced by prince Pentewere, the plot was discovered thank to legal heir – Ramesses IV. The guilty were sentenced to death or mutilation. Primary burial place of the king was supposed to be a KV3 tomb in the Valley of the Kings, however works on it had been cancelled. Ultimately the pharaoh was buried in annexated tomb of Setnakht – the tomb KV11 in the Kings’ Valley, while the tomb KV3 was used for burial of one of Ramesses’ sons. The king’s mummy was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

3

1154 - 1147
1166-1160 (Redford)
1163-1156 (Arnold)
1158-1152 (Parker)

1156-1150 (Helck, Krauss)
1154-1148 (Grimal, Kitchen)
1153-1147 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw)
1153-1146 (Dodson, Hornung))
1152/51-1145/44 (von Beckerath)
1151-1145 (Wente)

  Tablica genealogicznaMumia

Ramesses IV

  • Hr nxt nxt-(m)-mAat nb-Hbw-sd-mi-it.f ptH-tA-Tnn , kA nxt anx-m-mAat
  • mk-kmt waf-pDt-9
  • wsr-rnpwt wr-nxtw
  • wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-imn) , HqA-mAat-ra (stp.n-imn , stp.n-ra , stp.n-ptH)
  • ra-msi-sw (HqA-mAat mri-imn)

 HqA-mAat-ra Hekamaatre (Ruler Of Justice Of Re)   

 ra-msi-sw Ramesses (Born Of Re)

ra-msi-sw ([HqA-]mAat mri-imn) Ramesses Heka Maat Meriamon (Born Of Re ; [Lord] Of Truth ; Beloved Of Amun)

Detail of dark green schist kneeling statue. British MuseumSon of Ramesses III by queen Iset, brother of Ramesses VI.His definite standpoint against the harem plot by the end of his father’s rule assured him succession to the throne. There are found numerous traces of works in quarries at Wadi Hammamat and mines in Sinai in his times. Burial place of Ramesses was a tomb KV2 in the Kings’ Valley although, yet being a prince, he started building of a tomb in the Valley of the Queens – QV53. Ramesses died aged 50. Mummy of the king was discovered in the KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

4

1147 - 1142
1160-1156 (Redford)
1156-1151 (Arnold)
1152-1148 (Parker)

1150-1145 (Helck, Krauss)
1148-1144 (Grimal, Kitchen)
1147-1143 (Málek, Shaw)
1145-1141 (Gardiner, Wente)
1145/44-1142/40 (von Beckerath)
1146-1142 (Hornung)

1146-1141 (Dodson)
  Tablica genealogicznaMumia

Ramesses V

  • Hr kA nxt mn-mAat
  • ... ...
  • wsr-rnpwt-mi-itm
  • wsr-mAat-ra (sxpr.n-ra) , sxpr.n-ra , sxpr(n)-ra
  • ra-msi-sw imn-(Hr)-xpS.f (mri-imn)

 wsr-mAat-ra (sxpr.n-ra) Wesermaatre Sekheperenre (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re)

 ra-msi-sw imn-[Hr-xpS.]f  Ramesses Amunherkhopshef  (Born Of Re ; Amon Is His Strength Arm)

Son of Ramesses IV by queen Tentipet. Scanty artifacts survived from his times at Heliopolis, Karnak, Deir el-Bahari and Sinai. Most significant written document dated to that period is the Wilbour papyrus. This is one of most important sources of evidence concerning Egyptian economy at those times. The king died of smallpox aged 30-odd. Burial place – tomb KV9 in the Valley of the Kings, shared with Ramesses VI. The king’s mummy was discovered in the tomb-cache of Amenhotep II – KV35.

5

1142 - 1134
1156-1149 (Redford)
1151-1143 (Arnold)
1148-1138 (Parker)

1145-1137 (Helck, Krauss)
1144-1136 (Grimal)
1143-1136 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw)
1142-1135 (Hornung)

1142/40-1134/32 (von Beckerath)
1141-1134 (Gardiner)
1141-1133 (Dodson, Wente)
  Tablica genealogicznaMumia

Ramesses VI

  • Hr kA nxt aA-nxtw sanx-tAwi , aA-nxt(w)
  • wsr-HpS hd-Hfnw
  • wsr-rnpwt-mi-tA-Tnn
  • nb-mAat-ra (mri-imn)
  • ra-msi-sw imn-Hr-xpS.f (nTr-HqA-iwnw)

 nb-mAat-ra (mri-imn) Nebmaatre Meriamun  (Lord Of Justice Is Re ; Beloved Of Amun)

 ra-msi-sw [t]imn nTr-HqA-iwnw Ramesses [It] Amon Netjer Heka Iunu  (Born Of Re ; Father Amun ; The God, Lord of Heliopolis)

   

Son of Ramesses III by queen Iset, brother of Ramesses IV. Apart from numerous monuments usurped by Ramesses, other artifacts are located at Memmphis (pylon and part of a colossal statue), Heliopolis, Karnak (stelae) and Sinai. Statues of Ramesses are found at Tanis, Bubastis, Koptos. Burial place – finely decorated, shared with Ramesses V tomb KV9 in the Kings’ Valley. Mummy of the king was discovered in the KV35  tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.

6

1134 - 1126
1149-1141 (Redford)
1143-1136 (Arnold)
1138-1137 (Parker)

1137-1129 (Helck, Eyre)
1137-1128 (Krauss)
1136-1129 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw)
1136-1128 (Grimal)
1135-1129 (Hornung)
1134- ? (Gardiner)
1134/32-1126/23 (von Beckerath)
1133-1127 (Wente)
1133-1125 (Dodson)

  Tablica genealogiczna

Ramesses VII

  • Hr kA nxt an-m-nsw , an-m-nTr , nfr-Hr nb--Hbw-sd-mi-it.f-ptH-tATnn
  • mk-kmt wa.f-xAstiw , mk-kmt wa.f-pDwt
  • wsr-rnpwt-mi-imn , wsr-rnpwt-mi-itm ?
  • wsr-mAat-ra (stp.n-ra mri-imn)
  • ra-msi-sw it(.i)-imn (nTr-HqA-iwnw)

 wsr-[mAat]-ra (stp.n-ra mri-imn) Weser[maat]re Setepenre Meriamun (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Chosen Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun)

 ra-msi-sw it(.i)-imn (nTr-HqA-iwnw) Ramesses It Amun Netjer Heka Iunu (Born Of Re ; Father Amun ; The God, Lord Of Heliopolis)

Son of Ramesses VI and queen Nubchesbed. There are only few documents preserved from those times. They are mainly administrative and economical records, e.g. settlings of accounts of expeditions for gold and galenite, anthems in favor of the king and documents of Deir el-Medina indicating symptoms of economical crisis such as price increase on cereals, dissolving of royal rule, tomb robberies at necropolis. Burial place of the pharaoh – mere tomb KV1 in the Kings’ Valley.

7

1126 - 1124
1141-1139 (Redford)
1137-1130 (Parker)
1136-1131 (Arnold)
1129-1127 (Hornung)
1129-1126 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw)
1128-1125 (Grimal)
1128 (Helck)
1128-1126 (Krauss)
1127-1126 (Wente)
1126/23-1125/21 (von Beckerath)
1125-1123 (Dodson)

  Tablica genealogiczna

Ramesses VIII

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • wsr-mAat-ra (Ax-n-imn)
  • ra-msi-sw stX-Hr-xpS.f , ra-msi-sw itm-Hr-xpS.f (mri-imn)

 wsr[-mAat-]ra (Ax-n-imn) Weser[maat]re Akhenamun  (owerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Incarnation Of Amun)

 ra-msi-sw (mri-imn) stX-Hr-xpS.f  Ramesses Meriamun Sethherkhopshef (Born Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun ; Seth Is His Strength Arm)

relief z Medinat HabuThis ruler is hardy known to us. He was son of Ramesses III by a queen of unknown name. Only a few small plaques with his name and inscription in the list of princess from Medinet Habu survived until now. Localization of his tomb is not known, neither mummy of the king nor any item of his funerary equipment had been preserved.

8

1124 - 1105
1139-1120 (Redford)
1134-1117 (Gardiner)
1134-1115 (Drioton)
1131-1112 (Arnold)
1130-1111 (Parker)

1127-1109 (Helck, Hornung)
1126-1108 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw, Wente, Krauss)
1125-1107 (Grimal)
1125/21-1107/03 (von Beckerath)
1123-1104 (Dodson)
  Tablica genealogiczna

Ramesses IX

  • Hr kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • wsr-xpS sanx-tAwi
  • wsr-rnpwt-mi-anDti wr-nsyt dr-pDt-9 , wsr-rnpwt-mi-ra-Dt
  • nfr-kA-ra (stp.n-ra) , nfr-kAw-ra (stp.n-ra) , nTr nfr nfr-kA-ra (stp.n-ra , mri-imn)
  • ra-msi-sw xai-m-wAst , ra-msi-sw xai-(m)-wAst , (mrr-imn , mri-imn)

 nfr-kA-ra (stp.n-ra) Neferkare Setepenre  (Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re ; Chosen Of Re) 

 ra-msi-sw xai-m-wAst  mri-imn Ramesses Khaemwaset Meriamun (Born Of Re ; Appearing In Thebes ; Beloved Of Amun) 

Descent of this ruler is not well established. Presumably he was son of Montuherchopshaf, who in turn was son of Ramesses III by Takhat. However E.F. Wente states that Ramesses IX was son of Ramesses VIII, while according to one of the K. Kitchen’s hypotheses his father was Ramesses VII. Additionally some scholars believe that he was son of Ramesses III and a queen of unknown name, he could also be a broter of Ramesses VIII. Duration of reign of Ramesses IX was famous for interrogations of tomb robbers in the Kings’ Valley and against bossing corruption of officials. Burial place – tomb KV6 in the Valley of the Kings. Mummy of the king was discovered in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.

9

1105 - 1101
1120-1111 (Redford)
1117-1114 (Gardiner)
1115-1112 (Drioton)
1112-1100 (Arnold)
1111-1102 (Parker)

1109-1105 (Helck)
1109-1099 (Hornung)
1108-1104 (Krauss)
1108-1099 (Lehner, Málek, Shaw)
1108-1098 (Wente)
1107-1098 (Grimal)
1107/03-1103/1099 (von Beckerath)
1104-1094 (Dodson)

  Tablica genealogiczna

Ramesses X

  • Hr kA nxt sxaa-ra
  • aA-...
  • ... ...
  • xpr-mAat-ra (stp.n-ra , mri-imn) , xpr-mAat-n-ra (stp.n-ra)
  • ra-msi-sw imn-(Hr)-xpS.f (mri-imn) , ra-msi-sw

 xpr-mAat-ra stp.n-ra Khepermaatre Setepenre  (The Justice Of Re Abides ; Chosen Of Re)

 ra-msi-sw imn-(Hr)-xpS.f (mri-imn) Ramesses Amonherchopszef Meriamon (Born Of Re ;  Amun Is His Strength Arm ; Beloved Of Amun)

Nine years long reign assigned to this ruler by some scholars seems not very possible. The last known document evidencing rule of Ramesses X refers to year 3, as mentioned in records of necropolis of Deir el-Medina. Burial place – tomb KV18 in the Valley of the Kings. Neither mummy nor any item from his funerary equipment has been found.

10

1101 - 1069
1114-1087 (Gardiner)
1112-1085 (Drioton)
1111-1081 (Redford)
1105-1076/70 (Helck)
1106-1077 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
1103/1099-1070/69 (von Beckerath)
1100-1070 (Arnold)

1099-1069 (British Museum, Málek, Shaw)
1098-1069 (Grimal)
1094-1064 (Dodson)
  Tablica genealogiczna

Ramesses XI

  • Hr kA nxt mri-ra , mri-mAat
  • wsr-xpS hd-Hfnw
  • wr-pHti sanx-tAwi ity hrw-Hr-mAat sHtp-tAwi
  • mn-mAat-ra (stp.n-ptH , sxm-stp.n-ptH)
  • ra-msi-sw xai-(m)-wAst (mrr-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw) ra-msi-sw xai-m-wAst (mri-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw)

 mn-mAat-ra (stp.n-ptH) Menmaatre Setepenptah  (The Justice Of Re Reamins ; Chosen Of Ptah)

 ra-msi-sw xai-(m)-wAst (mrr-imn nTr-HqA-iwnw) Ramesses Khaemwaset Mereramun Netjer Heka Iunu (Born Of Re ; Appearing In Thebes ;  The God, Lord Of Heliopolis)

Son of Ramesses X and queen Titi. Reign of Ramesses XI was marked by collapse of the national authority, economical crisis, robberies of the royal tombs, famine and, finally, civil war. Into times of Ramesses XI fall controversial episode of expedition of Panehesi to the south, aiming to put into order that part of the land. Ambitions of the general Panehesi resulted in conflicts with Amenhotep – the high priest of Amun at Thebes. The civil war had begun. At Amenhotep’s request Ramesses XI had sent additional units of army commanded by Piankhi who drove Panechesi out of the land whilst Herhor himself, followed by his son-in-law  Piankhi overtook a post of high priests still warring in Nubia for next 10. By the end of Ramesses rule Smendes reigned in the North (presumably he was vizier of that territory), Herhor rules at Thebaida and gives rise to a powerful and independent of the central rule at Tanis dynasty of High Priests of  Theban Amun. Ramesses XI was buried in the KV4 tomb in the Kings’ Valley.

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