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Royal and Private Tombs

Ancient Egypt had created a monumental architecture. On its grounds first colossal monuments – royal tombs - were discovered. The tombs – belonging either to kings or to private individuals were becoming more and more sophisticated until they achieved their final form. Two elements in the temple were obligatory: the funerary chamber and the cult-place. During the Old and Middle Kingdom they were placed in conjunction with each other making a main part of the funerary complex. Other parts of a temple are: a monumental mastaba with vertical shaft leading down the chamber, pyramid with numerous passages and chambers covered with pile of stones. These were supposed to protect the passages and sacral chambers against undesirable visitors. An original invention of the New Kingdom was a separation probably resulting from a concern for keeping a burial place in a strict secret. This was to prevent a burial place more effectively from profanation. Royal tombs, later also tombs of high officials had been hewn in bed-rocks of valleys on the west of Thebes. Funerary temples belonging to them had been erected a few hundred meters farther, beyond the mountain escarpment. Few hundred officials were buried in numerous necropolis in Western Thebes. Most of them date to the New Kingdom.


Reconstruction of tombs, their design and dimensions provide a good material for studies of the development of Egyptian sacral architecture. Some of them are represented schematically below..

Necropolis Umm el Qaab in Abydos (Archaic Period)

   tomb U-j ( 00 Dyn )  
   tomb of Iry-Hor ( 0 Dyn )
   tomb of Ka ( 0 Dyn )
   tomb of Narmer ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Aha ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Djer ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Djet ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Meryt-Neith ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Den ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Adjib ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Semerkhet ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Qa'a ( I Dynasty )
   tomb of Peribsena ( II Dynasty )
   tomb of Chasechemui ( II Dynasty )

Complete list of all pyramids ( III...XVIII Dynasty )

Necropolis at Gizeh

              pyramid of Khufu ( IV Dynasty )
              pyramid of Khafre (IV Dynasty)
              pyramid of Menkaure (IV Dynasty)

Necropolis in Saqqara

               gallery tomb of Hotepsekhemui in Saqqara ( II Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Djoser in Saqqara ( III Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Sekhemkheta win Saqqara ( III Dynasty )
               mastab complex of Shepseskaf in Saqqara ( IV Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Weserkaf in Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Djedkare Isesi in Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Wenis in Saqqara ( V Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Teti in Saqqara (VI Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Pepi I in Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
               pyramid of Nemtimsaf I in Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Pepi II in Saqqara ( VI Dynasty )
               pyramid of Kakare Ibi in Saqqara ( VIII Dynasty )

Some necropolis of Old and Middle Kingdom

               pyramid of Khaba in Zawijet el-Arian ( III Dynasty )                
               pyramid of Huni-Snofru in Medum ( III-IV Dynasty )
               pyramids of Snofru in Dahshur ( IV Dynasty )
               pyramid of Baka w Zawijet el-Arian ( IV Dynasty )     
               pyramid of Djedefre in Abu Roash ( IV Dynasty )     
               pyramid complex of Senweseret I in el-Lisht ( XII Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Senweseret II in el-Lahun ( XII Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Senweseret III in Dahshur ( XII Dynasty )
               pyramid complex of Amenemhat III in Dahshur ( XII Dynas
ty )
               pyramid complex of Amenemhat III in Hawara ( XII Dynasty )

Hypogeum in Kings Valley ( New Kingdom )

                KV1 - tomb of Ramesses VII ( XX Dynasty )
                KV2 - tomb of Ramesses IV ( XX Dynasty )
                KV3 - tomb of unknown son of Ramesses III ( XX Dynasty )
                KV4 - tomb of Ramesses XI ( XX Dynasty )
                KV5 - tomb of sons of Ramesses II ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV6 - tomb of Ramesses IX ( XX Dynasty )
                KV7 - tomb of Ramesses II ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV8 - tomb of Merenptah ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV9 - tomb of Ramessesa V and Ramesses VI ( XX Dynasty )
                KV10 - tomb of Amenemose ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV11 - tomb of Ramesses III ( XX Dynasty )
                KV13 - tomb of chancellor Bay ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV14 - tomb Tawosret and Sethnakhta ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV15 - tomb of Seti II ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV16 - tomb of Ramesses I ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV17 - tomb of Seti I ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV18 - tomb of Ramesses X ( XX Dynasty )
                KV19 - tomb of Montuherkhopshef ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV20 - tomb Totmesa I i Hatszepsut ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV21 - "tomb of Two Queens" ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV34 - tomb of Tuthmosis III ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV35 - tomb of Amenhotep II ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV36 - tomb of Maiherperi ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV38 - tomb of Tuthmosis I ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV39 - tomb of Amenhotep I ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV43 - tomb of Tuthmosis IV ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV46 - tomb of Yuya and Tjuyu ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV47 - tomb of Siptah ( XIX Dynasty )
                KV55 - "Amarna Cache" ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV57 - tomb of Horemheb ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV60 - tomb of Sitre ( XVIII Dynasty )
                KV62 - tomb of Tutankhamun ( XVIII Dynasty )

Hypogeum in Valley of the Apes ( West Valley )

                WV22 - tomb of Amenhotep III
                WV23 - Ai II ( XVIII Dynasty )

Hypogeum in Queens Valley

                QV55 - tomb of Amunherkhopshef ( XX Dynasty )
                QV66 - tomb of queen Nefertari ( XIX Dynasty )

Theban Necropolis

                 Deir el-Medina 
                 Deir el-Bahari
                 Dra Abu el-Naga
Qurnet Murrai

Caches and other tombs in Western Thebes

                  DB320 - cache at Deir el-Bahari  ( XVII - XXI Dynasty )
                  KV35 - tomb of Amenhotep II in Kings Valley  ( XVIII Dynasty )
KV55 - Amarna's Cache
 ( XVIII Dynasty )
                  AN B -  tomb of Amenhotep I at Dra Abu el-Naga ( XVIII Dynasty )

Akhetaten (Tell al Amarna)

TA26 - tomb of Akhenaten ( XVIII Dynasty )
  wTombs of Amarna nobles ( XVIII Dynasty )

King's Tombs in Tanis  ( XXI-XXII Dynasty )

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