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Abusir is a part of necropolis of ancient Memphis, situated midway between Giza and Saqqara, are undoubtedly our best source of information concerning the day-to-day functioning of Old Kingdom pyramid complexes. At least four fifth-dynasty pharaohs (Sahure, Neferirkare, Neferefre, and Neweserre) chose Abusir as the location for their funerary monuments. The ancient names given to their pyramids were The Ba Of Sahure Rises ; Neferirkare Has Become A Ba ; The Bas Of Neferefre Are Divine, and The Places Of Neweserre Are Enduring. In addition to these four pyramids, there was an unfinished complex at the northeastern end of the site that may have belonged to Neferirkare's ephemeral successor, Shepseskare. In 1838, the pyramids of Sahure, Neferirkare, and Neweserra were first surveyed and partially cleared by John Perring, who reached the burial chamber of Sahura, finding only part of a basalt sarcophagus. Five years later, the pioneering German Egyptologist Richard Lepsius undertook further survey work at Abusir. His compatriot Ludwig Borchardt fully excavated the three funerary complexes between 1902 and 1908. On the west from pyramid of Khentkawes II there is field of mastabas from V Dynasty, mastabas of Khekeretnebty, Hedjetnebu, Mernefu, Neserkauhor, Idu and Khenit.



pyramid of Neferirkare relief depicted Ptahshepses at his mastaba


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