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Pyramid complex of Pepi I in Saqqara

mn-nfr-ppy (Pepi's Splendor is Enduring)

base length:   78.75 m
slope:   53o 07' 48"
height:   52.5 m
actual height of ruins:   12 m



A - burial chamber
B - antechamber
C - three portcullises
D - entrance chapel
E - three magazines
F - cult pyramid
G - corridor chamber


The pyramid survived to our times badly damaged due to stone robbery. Of funerary equipment only coffin and case for canopies with three jars were found. Also  left sandal of reddish wood, a piece of linen and a small  flint knife. Pyramid Texts at those times were already well fixed as tomb decoration, not only on the walls of the burial chamber and antechamber, but even in the access corridor. The six-stepped pyramid core was constructed by using small pieces of limestone bound with clay mortar. The casing of fine white limestone is intact only at the lowest levels. Next to the pyramid's north wall, over the entrance to the corridor leading to the burial chamber, stood a north chapel, though nothing of it remains.. The limestone corridor had descending and a horizontal part. The pink granite was used to reinforce the corridor at three places and to make the barrier of three porticullis slabs located approximately  in the middle of the horizontal part of the corridor. The antechamber was located on the pyramid's vertical axis. East of it was the serdab with three niches, and west of it the burial chamber. The antechamber and burial chamber had gabled ceilings made of enormous limestone monoliths. The ceiling consists of three layers of blocks. The sarcophagus stood on the west wall of the burial chamber. Name of the pyramid Mennefer-Pepi became later name of a city built around the temple of Ptah and transferred into Greek form: Memphis. Part of casing of small cult pyramid, including pyramidion, have been found.
The French team had expected to find a queen's pyramid on the south side of the king's pyramid, discovered seven of them - and they may discover still more as time goes on. These pyramids are belonging to: Nebuunet, Inenek-Inti, Meritit, Ankhesenpepi II and III, Rehorishefnakht, Hornetjerkhet and Behenu.

Cult pyramid in mortuary complex of Pepi I. Only part of casing including pyramidion of this small cult pyramid have been found. The remains were be stolen as building material.

Pyramid complex of Pepi II in Saqqara

mn-anx-nfr-kA-ra (Neferkare's life is enduring)

side of base:   78.75 m
slope:   53o 07' 48"
height:   52.5
antechamber:   3.69 m x 3.15 m
burial chamber:   7.9 x 3.15 m
length of corridor chamber:   16 m
length of corridor:   23 m
length of causeway:   c.400 m



A - burial chamber
B - antechamber
C - descending passage
D - entrance chapel
E - horizontal passage
F - three portcullises
G - corridor chamber


Funerary complex of Pepi II resembles in its construction and decorations those of Teti, Unis and Sahure. The pyramid core was built of small pieces of limestone bound with clay mortar. For the casing white limestone was used. The internal construction was accessible through entrance from northern chapel and was composed of ascending passage 16 m long, antechamber, chamber with coffin and magazine. In the vestibule, at the point of transition between the descending and horizontal parts of the corridor, many fragments of alabaster and diorite vessels were found, also golden blade of small knife. Immediately behind the vestibule was a granite barrier with three massive portcullis slabs. The serdab had no niches and consisted of a single room. Stars shone from the gabled ceiling of the antechamber and the burial chamber.  Apart from Pyramid Texts fixed there also reminders of funerary equipment: granite sarcophagus and cover of canopic case, were found. South of temple of offerings there is a small cult pyramid (F), which in its original form did not essentially differ from earlier structures of the same kind in the complexes of the Vth and VIth Dynasties. The causeway (J) about 400 m length connecting the valley temple (K) with the mortuary temple takes two turns and angles to the northeast.


A - pyramid of Iput II
B - pyramid of Neith
C - pyramid of Wedjebten
D - sanctuary
E - five statue niches
F - cult pyramid
G - open court
H - entrance hall
I - causeway
J - causeway
K - valley temple
L - landing ramps

remains of funerary complex:
East wall and N-E corner of  Wedjebten pyramid, alabaster plate on front, S-E corner of king's pyramid, and remains of mortuary temple
remains of Pepi II cult pyramid

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