of ancient Egypt into smaller administratory units – nomes,
was performed yet in the Old Kingdom and survived with minor changes up to
invasion of Arabs in VII
AD. Generally one can assume existence of 42 provinces, of which 22 were
in Upper and 20 in Lower Egypt. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms a nom
was managed by nomarkh or overseer of district. His rule, strengthened by
the pharaoh became rivalry to central rule. Sometimes an increase in
significance of a nome together with ambitions of the nomarch
ruling it lead to downfall of the reign and its breakup into smaller
provinces, usually fighting against each other. Especially during
intermediate periods various nomarchs
usurped their right to the crown. Some of them had given rise to strong
dynasties that regained central rule in the country.
I - White Wall
Men-Nefer, Ineb-Hedj (Memphis, Mit
During long periods of Egyptian history this city was capital of the land.
Cult center of god Ptah, accompanying goddess Sakhmet and their son –
Nefertum (Memphite Triad). Necropolises of the city were found in
cult center of ancient god Sokaris.
II - Thigh (Foreleg)
Khem (Letopolis, Kom
Capital of the nome. Cult center of god Heru (Khenty-Irtu), worshipped in the form of
sitting ram (in other cities – also bull or lion). The city was also cult
center of Isis and Horus the Old.
III - Occident
Taminhor (Hermopolis Parva,
Capital of the nome till IV century BC. Cult of Djehuty (Thoth)
Imu (Kom el-Hisn)
the nome in Old Kingdom. Between Kom Abu Billo and Naukratis. Cult
center of Hathor-Sekhmet
The city built in order of Alexander
Macedonian. Capital of Ptolemaic Egypt. The biggest center of culture and
science in eastern part of Mediterranean.
IV - Southern
Cult center of Sobek, Isis and Amon.
V - Northern Shield
Sa (Sais, San el-Hagar)
Capital of the nome, in the
Late Period also capital of Egypt. Greek trade center. Temple of goddess
The city was created from fusion of two others: Pe and Dep. Cult center of
goddess Uto, later also Isis. According to Herodotus in Persian times the
famous oracle was here.
VI - Hill
Chaswu (Xois, Sakha)
Important cult center of Amon-Re. According to Manetho – seat of dynasty
VII - Western Harpoon
Per Ha-Nereb (Metelis,
City from period of rule of Ramesses
II. Cult center of Ha
Ionian colony and harbor. Important trade center since Saitic period, also
known for iron prodution. The city was dedicated to Horus who was
presented as solar disc with wings and two uraeus.
Also cult center of Neith, Amun and Thoth
Tjeku (Per-Atum) (Pithom,
The city raised by Ramesses II, located at the canal joining Nile and
Bitter Lakes. Capital of nome and cult center of Atum. According to Bible
Israelites were imprisoned here – the
Land of Goshen.
Cult center of Horus (Horus of Behet) and Amon-Re.
Royal Children Superior
Cult center of goddess Bastet with necropolis of cats. The city was seat
of Libyan dynasty XXII and at that time also capital of Egypt.
XIX - Royal Children Inferior
Imet (Tell Nabasha)
Awaris, San el-Hagar)
Capital of Egypt under dynasty XXI and Libyan dynasty XXII. Important
trade harbor with Asia. Center of linen.
Pi-Ramesses was raised by
Seti I and Ramesses II and designed as administrative center of the land.
XX - Sopdu
Saft el-Henna, )
Cult center of god Sopdu and accompanying him goddesses Khensit and
I - Bow
Nile island with famous sacral complex of Isis and Hathor dated back to
III BC. After Lower Nubia had been flooded by waters of lake Nasser due to
building of Assuan Dam the temples were moved on Agilkia island.More ...>>>
Suentet (Syene, Asuan)
One ofmost important cities in ancient Egypt, with strategic location at
the Nubian boundary. Here were found buildings dated back to first
dynasties. Famous granite and alabaster quarries.More
Nubet (Ombos, Kom Ombo)
Nome capital In Ptolemaic Period with temples of Sobek and Haroeris dated
back to II BC.
Nome capital and boundary bastion erected on island. Temples of Khnum (Nektanebo
II) and Satet (New Kingdom) and famous Nilometer discovered in 1822.
Mastabas dated back to Old Kingdom. Center of worship of Horus – temple
from Ptolemaic Period.
III - Nekhen
Nome capital In limes of New Kongdom. Cult center of goddess Nekhbet and
Thot – temples. Temple of Nektanebo and ruined temple of
III. Numerous rock tombs of nobles.
Temple of Upper Egypt in Predynastic Period. First capital of the nome
III. Cult center of Horus and goddess Nekhbet, the personification of
white crown. Temple of Nekhbet erected by Amenhotep II and extended by
Ramesses II. Temple of Thot built in times of
Yunet (Latopolis, Esna)
Capital of nome in times of Nekhen’s domination. Cult center of Neith and
Khnum. Temple dated back to Ptolemaic-Roman period.
Capital of Egypt in New Kingdom. Cult center of Amon. Largest temple
complex on eastern side of Nile – temples of Amon, Mut, Khonsu (Theban
triad). Moreover temples of Ptah and Apet (goddess worshipped as mother of
Osiris). On western side of the river was area called
Western Thebes, with numerous
necropolises, funerary temples and famous
Valleys of Kings and Queens
Djamet (Medinet Habu)
Mortuary temple of Ramesses III and small temple of Hatshepshut and
Tuthmosis III. Cult center of Amun.
Capital of nome up to dynasty XVIII. Temple of Montu worshipped as bull
Bukhis. Bukheum – necropolis of bulls Bukhises.
district. Cult center of Thot. Cult Hathor and Sobek of
Djerti (Tuphium, Tod)
V - Two Falcons
Gesi (Apollinopolis Parva,
In Roman times named
in Coptic - Kus Berbir.
Haroeris and Heqet
Gebtiu (Koptos, Kuft)
Main deities: Min, Isis and Horus. Significant economical center of Upper
Egypt that connected the Nile Valley through Wadi Hammamat with Red Sea (Kosejr).
Nebet (Ombos, Kom
Cult of Seth
Capital of nome with reminders of ancient Egyptian temples, among others
temples of Hathor and Isis. Also Mammisi (temple of birth) of Nektanebo
and another one, both dated back to Roman Period.
VII - Sistrum
Hut, Hut-Sekhem (Diospolis
Known as the City of Sistrum. Cult center of goddess Bat, assimilated with
Hathor in times of first dynasties.
VIII - Large
Abdju (Osiris, Abydos)
10 km north-west from Baliana, with well preserved traces of very old
settlements. Abydos served as necropolis for This, the nearby located
capital of first dynasties. Abydos became growing center of cult of Osiris
since dynasty VI and later of Khenty Amentiu. Under dynasty XIX Seti I
erected here temple devoted to his father, Ramesses I, and started to
build his own mortuary temple. Also Ramesses II built in Abydos small
mortuary temple. From Abydos come two
famous tables, the monuments being fundamental for assigning
chronology of Egyptian rulers.More ...>>>
This, Tjeny (Thinis,
Capital of nome, also of the country, in times of two first dynasties.
IX - Min
Capital of nome and one of most important cities in Upper Egypt. Temple of
Min and center of fertility worship.
X - Wadjet (cobra)
Cult center of Seth from Tjebu.
Home of queen Tiji,
the wife of Amenhotep III.
XI - Tjay
Capital of the smallest of Egyptian nomes. Temples of Seth and Maat.
XII - Viper
Capital of nome. Cult of god Anti and Khnum was developin here in times of
Ramesses II. Rock tombs of nobles from dynasty VI with beautiful
decorations representing daily life in Old Kingdom.
XIII - Nedjefet
Capital of nome playng significant role in
Intermediate Period and during conflict of Theban nobles and
Herakleopolitan kings. Cult center of Anubis and
Important shipping point located on east-west caravan's’ route. Rock tombs
dated to times of dynasty XII
XIV - Nedjefet
Qis (Cusae, el-Kusiya)
Necropolis with tombsof local nobles from Middle Kingdom.
Cult of Hathor
Cult of god Thot and Ogdoada near Ashmunein, later also cult of Aton.
Capital of the country in Amarna period with temples of solar cult.
XV - Hare
Temple erected by Ramesses II.
(Hermopolis Magna, Aszmunein)
Capital of nome. The biggest center of cult of Thot with his teple dated
back to Middle and New Kingdom. 6 km east, in Tuna el-Gebel, there is a
necropolis dated to Late Period with numerous tombs and chapels, among
others of Petosiris, the high priest of Thot in IV BC.
XVI - Oryx
Important economic center of contemporary Egypt.
Hebenu (Kom el-Ahmar)
Cult center of Ramesses II with his temple. Chapel in a cave of lion
the daughter of Re. Necropolis with 19 tombs of nobles, among others a
tomb of Nefer-Sekeru, the great royal scribe.
XVII - Anupu
Temple of Anubis and necropolis of dogs.
XVIII - Anty
Two temples: Anti and Sakhmet, erected by Sheshonq.
Tombs dated back to dynasty XII, numerous findings of precious jewelry.
XIX - Wab
Capital of nome. Came to great significance in Ptolemaic period.
Cult of Seth and fish Mormyrus.
XX - Laurel
Capital of nome. Became capital of the land in Herecleopolitan period and
was a residence of dynasty IX and X kings. Cult center of the ram-god
Harsafes whose temple, built by Ramesses II, was discovered in 1892-93 by
Intermediate Period the city gained some importance and its nomarchs
became significant rulers.
XXI - Laurel Inferior
At western side of Nile there is a pyramid and funerary complex of kinf
Cult of Khnum.
Capital of Egypt in limes of dynasty XII. Amenemhat I and Senweseret I
ordered building of their pyramid-tombs nearby. Also here is found mastaba
of Senweseret-Ankh, the high priest of Ptah and royal architect.