Nomes of Egypt 

Division of ancient Egypt into smaller administratory units – nomes, was performed yet in the Old Kingdom and survived with minor changes up to invasion of Arabs in VII AD. Generally one can assume existence of 42 provinces, of which 22 were in Upper and 20 in Lower Egypt. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms a nom was managed by nomarkh or overseer of district. His rule, strengthened  by the pharaoh became rivalry to central rule. Sometimes an increase in significance of a nome together with ambitions of the nomarch ruling it lead to downfall of the reign and its breakup into smaller provinces, usually fighting against each other. Especially during intermediate periods various nomarchs usurped their right to the crown. Some of them had given rise to strong dynasties that regained central rule in the country.

Lower Egypt

I - White Wall  (inb HD)

Men-Nefer, Ineb-Hedj (Memphis, Mit Rahina)

During long periods of Egyptian history this city was capital of the land. Cult center of god Ptah, accompanying goddess Sakhmet and their son – Nefertum (Memphite Triad). Necropolises of the city were found in Saqqara, cult center of ancient god Sokaris.

II - Thigh (Foreleg) (xpS)

Khem (Letopolis, Kom Ausim)

Capital of the nome. Cult center of god Heru (Khenty-Irtu), worshipped in the form of sitting  ram (in other cities – also bull or lion). The city was also cult center of Isis and Horus the Old.

III - Occident (imnty)

Taminhor (Hermopolis Parva, Damanhur) Capital of the nome till IV century BC. Cult of Djehuty (Thoth)
Imu (Kom el-Hisn)

Capital of the nome in Old Kingdom. Between Kom Abu Billo and Naukratis. Cult center of Hathor-Sekhmet

Rakote (Alexandria)

The city built in order of Alexander Macedonian. Capital of Ptolemaic Egypt. The biggest center of culture and science in eastern part of Mediterranean.

IV - Southern Shield (nt rsw)

Djeka

Cult center of Neith

Sapi-Res

Cult center of Sobek, Isis and Amon.

V - Northern Shield (nt mHt)

Sa (Sais, San el-Hagar)

Capital of the nome, in the Late Period also capital of Egypt. Greek trade center. Temple of goddess Neith.

Per-Wadjet (Buto)

The city was created from fusion of two others: Pe and Dep. Cult center of goddess Uto, later also Isis. According to Herodotus in Persian times the famous oracle was here.

VI - Hill Bull (kA Dw)

Chaswu (Xois, Sakha) Important cult center of Amon-Re. According to Manetho – seat of dynasty XIV.

VII - Western Harpoon (wa imnty)

Per Ha-Nereb (Metelis, Damanhur)

City from period of rule of Ramesses II. Cult center of Ha

(Naucratis)?

Ionian colony and harbor. Important trade center since Saitic period, also known for iron prodution. The city was dedicated to Horus who was presented as solar disc with wings and two uraeus. Also cult center of Neith, Amun and Thoth

VIII - Eastern Harpoon

Tjeku (Per-Atum) (Pithom, Tell el-Maskhuta)

The city raised by Ramesses II, located at the canal joining Nile and Bitter Lakes. Capital of nome and cult center of Atum. According to Bible Israelites were imprisoned here – the Land of Goshen.

IX - Anedjty (anDty)

Per-Usiri (Djedu) (Busiris, Taposiris Magna, Abusir Bana)

Primarily cult center of Osiris Andedjty, later also of Isis. Necropolis of animals. From here comes famous pillar Djed, symbolizing trunk of cut down tree.

X - Black Bull (kA km)

Hut-Herib (Athribis, Tell Athrib, Benha)

Cult center of Horus and crocodile Khenty-Khety (Heru) and black bull Kemur. Temple raised by Ahmose. The city gained big economical significance in Roman Period.

XI - Hesbe Bull (kA Hsb)

Taremu (Leontopolis, Tell el-Mokdam)

Capital of nome in Ptolemaic Period. Cult center of Horus, worshipped as lion Mahes.

Nai-Ta-Hut (Leontopolis, Tell el-Jahudiya)

Cult center of a couple of ancient gods Shu (air) and Tefnet (moisture), presented as lions.

Hesbe (Farbajthos, Horbejt)  

XII - Veal and Cow (kA iw)

Tjeb-Neter (Sebennythos, Samanud)

Home city of Manetho. Temple of Onuris. Cult of Isis. Capital of Egypt under dynasty XXX.

XIII - Strong King (HqAt-aD)

Yunu (On) (Heliopolis, el-Matariya)

Solar city, cult center of Re-Horakhte, bull Mnevis, Atum-Re. Politically and religiously one of most significant centers in the land. Place where legendary stone Benben was found.

XIV - Eastern Standard (xnt-iAbt)

(Pelusium, Tell Farama)

City located at Pelusian river arm Stopover place for Egyptian army before Asiatic campaigns. Presumably nome’s capital.

Senu (Sile, Tell Abu Safa)  

XV - Ibis (DHwty)

Bahu (Hermopolis, Tell Baklija, Aszmunein)

Cult center of Thot (Hermes Trismegistos) with numerous graveyards for ibises.

XVI - Jumping Fish (HAt-mHyt)

Per-Banebdjedet (Mendes, Tema el-Amdid)

Capital of nome and cult center of Osiris and Banebdjedet (ram god) - rams cemetery. Capital of Egypt under dynasty XXIX.

Anpet-Djedet (Tmuis)

Capital nome and important economical center in Roman period.

XVII - Trone (bHdt)

Behdet (Sam-Behutkhet, Pa-khen-em-Amon, Hu) (Diospolis Parva, Tell el-Balamun)

Cult center of Horus (Horus of Behet) and Amon-Re.

XVIII - Royal Children Superior (nn-xnt)

Per-Bastet (Bubastis, Tell Basta)

Cult center of goddess Bastet with necropolis of cats. The city was seat of Libyan dynasty XXII and at that time also capital of Egypt.

XIX - Royal Children Inferior (nn-pH)

Imet (Tell Nabasha) Center cult of Wadjet
Djanenet, Hut-Waret,  (Tanis, Awaris, San el-Hagar) Capital of Egypt under dynasty XXI and Libyan dynasty XXII. Important trade harbor with Asia. Center of linen.
Pi-Rameses (Qantir) Pi-Ramesses was raised by Seti I and Ramesses II and designed as administrative center of the land.

XX - Sopdu (spd)

Per-Sopdu (Soped, Saft el-Henna, )

Cult center of god Sopdu and accompanying him goddesses Khensit and Shesemtet.

Fakussa (Faqus)  

Upper Egypt

I - Bow (tA-sty)

Iat-Rek (Philae)

Nile island with famous sacral complex of Isis and Hathor dated back to III BC. After Lower Nubia had been flooded by waters of lake Nasser due to building of Assuan Dam the temples  were moved on Agilkia island. More ...>>>

Suentet (Syene, Asuan)

One ofmost important cities in ancient Egypt, with strategic location at the Nubian boundary. Here were found buildings dated back to first dynasties. Famous granite and alabaster quarries.  More ...>>>

Nubet (Ombos, Kom Ombo)

Nome capital In Ptolemaic Period with temples of Sobek and Haroeris dated back to II BC.

Abu (Elephantine, Gasirat al-Asuan)

Nome capital and boundary bastion erected on island. Temples of Khnum (Nektanebo II) and Satet (New Kingdom) and famous Nilometer discovered in 1822. More ...>>>

Cheny (Gebel)  

II - Trone of Horus (Ts Hrw)

Djeba, Wetes-Hor, Behdet (Apollinopolis Magna, Edfu)

Mastabas dated back to Old Kingdom. Center of worship of Horus – temple from Ptolemaic Period.

III - Nekhen (nxn)

Nekheb (Eileithyiaspolis, Elkab)

Nome capital In limes of New Kongdom. Cult center of goddess Nekhbet and Thot – temples. Temple of Nektanebo and ruined temple of Thutmosis III. Numerous rock tombs of nobles.

Nekhen (Hierakonpolis, Kom el-Ahmar)

Temple of Upper Egypt in Predynastic Period. First capital of the nome III. Cult center of Horus and goddess Nekhbet, the personification of white crown.  Temple of Nekhbet erected by Amenhotep II and extended by Ramesses II. Temple of Thot built in times of Thutmosis III.

Yunet (Latopolis, Esna)

Capital of nome in times of Nekhen’s domination. Cult center of Neith and Khnum. Temple dated back to Ptolemaic-Roman period.

Hefat (Moalla)  

IV - Waset (wAst)

Waset, No-Amon (Diospolis Magna, Thebes, Luxor, Karnak)

Capital of Egypt in New Kingdom. Cult center of Amon. Largest temple complex on eastern side of Nile – temples of Amon, Mut, Khonsu (Theban triad). Moreover temples of Ptah and Apet (goddess worshipped as mother of Osiris). On western side of the river was area called Western Thebes, with numerous necropolises, funerary temples and famous Valleys of Kings and Queens

Djamet (Medinet Habu)

Mortuary temple of Ramesses III and small temple of Hatshepshut and Thutmosis III. Cult center of Amun.

Yuni (Hermonthis, Armant)

Capital of nome up to dynasty XVIII. Temple of Montu  worshipped as bull Bukhis. Bukheum – necropolis of bulls Bukhises.

Per-Hathor (Pathyris, Aphoditopolis, Gebelein)

Theban district. Cult center of Thot. Cult Hathor and Sobek of Sumenu.

Djerti (Tuphium, Tod)

V - Two Falcons (Hrwy)

Gesi (Apollinopolis Parva, Kus)

In  Roman times named Dioclecianopolis and in Coptic - Kus Berbir. Cult of Haroeris and Heqet

Gebtiu (Koptos, Kuft)

Capital of nome. Main deities: Min, Isis and Horus. Significant economical center of Upper Egypt that connected the Nile Valley through Wadi Hammamat with Red Sea (Kosejr).

Nebet (Ombos, Kom Bellal, Tukh)

Cult of Seth

VI - Crocodile (msH)

Yunet (Tenthyris, Dendera)

Capital of nome with reminders of ancient Egyptian temples, among others temples of Hathor and Isis. Also Mammisi (temple of birth) of Nektanebo and another one, both dated back to Roman Period.

VII - Sistrum (sSS)

Hut, Hut-Sekhem (Diospolis Parva, Hiw)

Known as the City of Sistrum. Cult center of goddess Bat, assimilated with Hathor in times of first dynasties.

VIII - Large Land (tA-wr)

Abdju (Osiris, Abydos)

10 km north-west from Baliana, with well preserved  traces of very old settlements. Abydos served as necropolis for This, the nearby located capital of first dynasties. Abydos became growing center of cult of Osiris since dynasty VI and later of Khenty Amentiu. Under dynasty XIX Seti I erected here temple devoted to his father, Ramesses I, and started to build his own mortuary temple. Also Ramesses II built in Abydos small mortuary temple. From Abydos come two famous tables, the monuments being fundamental for assigning chronology of Egyptian rulers.  More ...>>>

This, Tjeny (Thinis, Girga)

Capital of nome, also of the country, in times of two first dynasties.

IX - Min (mnw)

Ipu(-Khent-Min) (Khemmis Panopolis, Akhmim)

Capital of nome and one of most important cities in Upper Egypt. Temple of Min and center of fertility worship.

Hut-Repit (Athribis, Wanina)

 

X - Wadjet (cobra) (wADyt)

Djeuka (Antaeopolis, Kaw el-Kebir)

Cult center of Seth from Tjebu. Home of queen Tiji, the wife of Amenhotep III.

XI - Tjay (stX)

Szas-Hotep (Hypselis, Shutb)

Capital of the smallest of Egyptian nomes. Temples of Seth and Maat.

XII - Viper (Dw-f)

(Apotheke, Abutig)

Capital of nome. Cult of god Anti and Khnum was developin here in times of Ramesses II. Rock tombs of nobles from dynasty VI with beautiful decorations representing daily life in Old Kingdom.

XIII - Nedjefet Khentet (nart-f-xnt)

Sauti (Lycopolis, Asyut)

Capital of nome playng significant role in First Intermediate Period and during conflict of Theban nobles and Herakleopolitan kings. Cult center of Anubis and Wepwawet. Important shipping point located on east-west caravan's’ route. Rock tombs dated to times of dynasty XII

XIV - Nedjefet Pehetet (nart-f-pH)

Qis (Cusae, el-Kusiya)

Necropolis with tombsof local nobles from Middle Kingdom. Cult of Hathor

Akhet-Aton (el-Amarna)

Cult of god Thot and Ogdoada near Ashmunein, later also cult of Aton. Capital of the country in Amarna period with temples of solar cult.  More ...>>>

XV - Hare (wn)

Hare (Antinoupolis, Shejkh Abada)

Temple erected by Ramesses II.

Khmunu
(Hermopolis Magna, Aszmunein)

Capital of nome. The biggest center of cult of Thot with his teple dated back to Middle and New Kingdom. 6 km east, in Tuna el-Gebel, there is a necropolis dated to Late Period with numerous tombs and chapels, among others of Petosiris, the high priest of Thot in IV BC.

Heruer (Hur)

 

XVI - Oryx (mAHD)

Menat-Khufu (el-Minia)

Important economic center of contemporary Egypt.

Hebenu (Kom el-Ahmar)

Capital of nome. Cult center of Ramesses II with his temple. Chapel in a cave of lion goddess Pakhet, the daughter of Re. Necropolis with 19 tombs of nobles, among others a tomb of Nefer-Sekeru, the great royal scribe.

XVII - Anupu (inpw)

Hardai (Cynopolis)

Temple of Anubis and necropolis of dogs.

XVIII - Anty (anty)

Teudjai (Ankhyronpolis, el-Hiba)

Two temples: Anti and Sakhmet, erected by Sheshonq. Tombs dated back to dynasty XII, numerous findings of precious jewelry.

XIX - Wab (wAbwy)

Per-Medjed (Oxyrynkhos, el-Bahnasa)

Capital of nome. Came to great significance in Ptolemaic period. Cult of Seth and fish Mormyrus.

XX - Laurel Superior (nart-xnt)

Henen-Nesut (Heracleopolis, Ehnasije el-Medine)

Capital of nome. Became capital of the land in Herecleopolitan period and was a residence of dynasty IX and X kings. Cult center of the ram-god Harsafes whose temple, built by Ramesses II, was discovered in 1892-93 by Naville. In First Intermediate Period the city gained some importance and its nomarchs became significant rulers.

XXI - Laurel Inferior  (nart-pH)

(Meidum)

At western side of Nile there is a pyramid and funerary complex of kinf Snofru. Cult of Khnum.

Sheresi, Merwer, Shedyt (Crokodilopolis, Arsinoe, Medinet el-Fayum)

Capital of nome. Cult center of Sobek and Hathor.

XXII - Metenut  (dmt)

Itji-Tawi (el-Lisht)

Capital of Egypt in limes of dynasty XII. Amenemhat I and Senweseret I ordered building of their pyramid-tombs nearby. Also here is found mastaba of Senweseret-Ankh, the high priest of Ptah and royal architect.

(Aphroditopolis, Atfih)

Cult center of Hathor (Afrodite in Greek period).

 

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