to XXIX dynasty

XXXth Dynasty 380 - 342
( Sebennythos )

to IInd Persion Dominion Period

The Thirtieth Dynasty took up the torch of the Twenty-ninth (Mendesian) Dynasty when Nectanebo, a general from Sebennytos, dethroned Nepherites II by force. In thirty-eight years, three pharaohs — Nectanebo I, Djedhor and Nectanebo II — wrote the history of the last native dynasty, succeeding, despite palace crises, in dotting the land with splendid monuments of stone and maintaining a prosperous, independent status for Egypt, which remained alone in the face of the enormous Persian empire. In the temples, they undertook vast programs of architectural embellishment, including enclosure walls, propylons, processional roads, shrines, and monoliths.
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1

380 - 361
380-362 (Dodson, Grimal, von Beckerath)
380/79-361/60 (Arnold)

Nectanebo I

  • Hr TmA-a
  • smnx-tAwi
  • iri-mr(w)t-nTrw
  • xpr-kA-ra
  • nxt-nb.f , Nectanebis (Nectanebes) (Man)
 xpr-kA-ra  Kheperkare (The Ka Of Re Has Come Into Being)
 nxt-nb.f  Nekhetnebef (Strong Of His Lord)

Nectanebo (Nectanebos) is a Greek form of Egyptian name: Nekhet-nebef (nxt-nb.f). Founder of the last true Egyptian dynasty. Gained protection of priests from Sais by assigning to them a part of import taxes imposed to the city of Naucratis. He concluded a treaty with Athens but after a time Greek chieftain Khabias and considerable part of Greek mercenaries were recalled back to Athens. Subsequently, Egypt was attacked by Artaxerxes II, whose mighty army of 200 thousand soldiers was commanded by Syrian satrap Farnabasos. They reached as far as to the eastern Delta in 373 BC. Nile inundation prevented Persians from continuing their march and forced them to retreat.  Nectanebo was remembered as a great builder, left numerous monuments as a testimony of the splendour of his reign.

2

364 - 359
364/62-360 (von Beckerath)
362-360 (Dodson, Grimal)
361/60-359/58 (Arnold)

Djedhor ( Takhos, Teos )

  • Hr xai-m-mAat sSm-tAwi
  • mri-mAat sAx-prw-nTrw
  • xwi-bAqt waf-xAswt
  • iri-mAat-n-ra
  • Dd-Hr (stp.n-ini-Hrt(.inHr)) , Teos  (Man)
 iri-mAat-n-ra  Irimaatenre   (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)
 stp.n-ini-Hrt(.inHr)  Setepeninhor

 Son and successor of Nectanebo I. He continued the politics adopted by his father and lead to increased imposition of duties paid for Greek mercenaries. Disfavoured by clergy, confiscated a lot of temple treasuries. To this period are dated the first preserved Egyptian coins. He personally lead a successful campaign to Syria, supported at the sea by 200 triers. At that time in Egypt his brother, who was a regent, rebelled against him and declared king his own son – Nectanebo II, while Teos fled to Persia.

3

359 - 342
360-343 (Grimal)
360-342 (Dodson, von Beckerath)
359/58-342/41 (Arnold)


Nectanebo II 

  • Hr mri-tAwi , mri-tAwi mk-bAqt
  • shrw-ib-nTrw , shrw-ib-nTrw tkn-xAswt
  • smn-hpw , smn hpw Hwi-pDt-9
  • snDm-ib-ra (stp.n-inHr , stp.n-HtHr)
  • nxt-Hr-(n)-Hbyt (mri-inHr , sA-bAstt , sA-HtHr , sA-mri-HtHr , mri-HtHr) , Nectanebos (Man)
 snDm-ib-ra stp.n-imn  Senedjemibre Setepenamun (Chosen Of Amun) (?)
 nxt-Hr-(n)-Hbyt (mri-HtHr)  Nekhetherhebet Merihathor (Horus Strong Of Hebet ; Beloved Of Hathor)
nxt-Hr-(n)-Hbyt  Nekhetherhebet (Horus Strong Of Hebet)
   

Nectanebo (Nectanebos) is a Greek form of Egyptian name: Nekhet-Her-hebet (nxt Hr-xbt). Nectanebo II was the last king of true Egyptian dynasty. In 350 BC Persian expedition against Egypt fails due to pestilence outburst in Persian army. However few years later a mighty army of 300 thousand Persian soldiers, lead by Artaxerxes III Okhos, defeated much weaker Egyptians. Nectanebo hat to flee to the south where he had survived for some time thereafter until finally disappeared without leaving any trace.
 

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