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to XXVIII dynasty

XXIXth Dynasty 399 - 380
( Mendes )

to XXX dynasty

Dynasty XXIX was founded by Nepherites I, the northern Delta capital moved from Sais to the more centrally placed Mendes, indicating perhaps a stronger royal line arising from that city and the ousting ofthe previous one. Kings also maintained the cult of the sacred Apis bull at Memphis and is recorded in Serapeum inscription. Nepherites I and his successors succeed in maintaining their position in the face of attempts by Artaxerxes II to regain control over Egypt. Last years of dynasty were disturbed by revolts and in them lay the seed of the end of dynasty.
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399 - 393

Nefaarud I ( Nepherites I )

  • Hr aA-ib
  • ... ...
  • stp-nTrw
  • bA-n-ra (mri-nTrw)
  • nAi.f-aAw-rwD(w) , Nepherites (Man)
 bA-n-ra (mri-nTrw)  Baenre Meryneteru  (Soul Of Re, Beloved Of The Gods)
 nAi.f-aAw-rwD(w)  Nefarewdjew (The Great Ones Prosper)

Head of statue. Boston MuseumAccording to Arameic papyrus 13 of Brooklyn, he came to rule in autumn 399 BC after imprisonment and execution of Amyrteos. He allied with Sparta against Persia, donating 500 000 bushels of corn and equipment for 100 ships. In 1869 at Mandes there was found ushabti of this king with minor remainders of his burial in sarcophagus of black granite. Numerous traces of Nepherites’ building activity remained at Buto, Sais, Mamphis and Karnak.


393 - 391

Hernebkha Muthis

According to Manetho he was son of Nepherites I. He might have held rule with usurper Psammuthis until Akhoris overtook the rule and put end to anarchy. Apart from Manetho he is also mentioned by Demotic Chronicle.


392 - 390
393 (Dodson)
393/92 (von Beckerath)


  • Hr aA-pHti- mar-spw
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • wsr-ra (stp.n-ptH)
  • pA-Sri(-n)-mwt , Psa(m)muthis (Man)
 wsr-ra  Weserre (Re Is Strong)
stp.n-ptH  Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah) 
 pA-Sri(-n)-mwt  Pasherienmut (Child Of Mut)

He was regent reigning over territory of Upper Egypt and fighting against Akhoris for the rule. Presumably he managed to deprive Akhoris of rule for one year before he was in turn dethroned by the latter. Psammuthis is Greek transcription of the name pA-Sri(-n)-mwt Pasherienmut (The child of Goddess Mut). Building activity of Psammuthis survived as decorations in temple of Karnak; also Akhmim and Saqqara


392 - 380
393-380 (Dodson, von Beckerath)

Akhoris ( Hakor[is] )

  • Hr aA-ib mri-tAwi
  • qnw
  • sHtp-nTrw
  • Xnm-mAat-ra (stp.n-Xnmw , stp.n-inHr)
  • hkr , hgr , hqr , Achoris (Man)
 Xnm-mAat-ra  Maatibre (Justice Is The Heart Of Re)
 hkr  Haqor (Beduin ?)

Possibly son of Neferites I and father of Neferites II. This opinion is represented by majority of historians. However according to Meulenaere Achoris was usurper, ruling in the times between two related kings: Nepherites I and Nectanebo. He established politically strong Egyptian empire. Treaty concluded with Euagorsas, the king of Cyprus and Athenes in 389 BC reflected his incline to run entirely antipersian politics. He created corps of Athenian renegades commanded by Chabrias. 385 BC Egyptian army repulsed Persian attack. Achoris was a great builder leaving monuments known as: Karnak Chapel, Hypostyle in Nekchbet Temple in El-Kaab and Charga Oasis, kiosk in Medinet Habu and some minor structures in Lethopolis, Mendes, Sakkara, Tod and Elephantine.



Nefaarud II ( Nepherites II )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nAi.f-aAw-rwDw , Nepherites (Man)
 nAi.f-aAw-rwDw  Nefarewdjew (The Great Ones Prosper)

Probably son of Akhoris and grandson of Nepherites I. He reigned only a few months, for June/July to September/October 380 BC before deprived of rule by Nektanebo I.  Despite lack of any artifacts belonging to that ephemeral ruler, he is documented by Manetho and Demotic Chronicle.

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