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to XXVI dynasty

XXVIIth Dynasty 525 - 404
( First Persian Dominion )

to XXVIII dynasty

On two occasions, Egypt was integrated into the Persian empire. The first Persian domination lasted for 120 years. The Great Kings were represented at Memphis by a satrap and a treasurer, but on the ideological level, these emperors were the successors of the Saite kings and composed Manetho's Twenty-seventh Dynasty. Since the Saites had enabled the economy and the culture of Egypt to flourish brilliantly, Cambyses and Darius I acquired an especially lucrative province. While the Persians recruited native officials who were highly quali­fied to administer the land, they also settled or reinforced the foreign gar­risons (the Judeo-Aramaeans of Elephantine) and gave Greek and Phoenician merchants a freer hand. Around 445 b.c.e., under Artaxerxes I, Herodotus visited Egypt. Cambyses and especially Darius I, were depicted as genuine pharaohs on both public and private monuments.
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1

525 - 522

Cambyses II

  • Hr smA-tAwi
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • mstiw-ra
  • kmbt , kmbD , gmwD , Kambyses (Man)
 Hr smA-tAwi

 mstiw-ra  Mesutire (Descendant Of Re)

 kmbt  Cambyses

Son of Cirrus the Great who founded Persian Empire. He came to the Persian throne in 530 BC and five years later – also to Egyptian one.  At Pelusium he defeated Egyptian army commanded by Phanes, the chieftain of Psametik III. Presumably Phanes betrayed the king and took the Persians’ side while Udjahorresent - the high priest of Neith at Sais, gave up defense and surrendered his fleet. In revenge for stirring up revolts Cambyses commanded to murder 2 thousands of captives, among others Psametik III. Greek tradition, unfavorable to Persians, presents Cambyses as an unrestrained and cruel ruler who was against religion, allowed plunders and violence. Leaving the captured Egypt under residing in Memphis satrap Ariandes, Cambyses proceeded to Persia due to revolt risen by his own brother’s, Smerdis. He died on the way in 522.

a

522 - 520

Petubastis III

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • shrw-ib-ra
  • pA-di-bAstt sA(-bAstt)

 shrw-ib-ra  Seheruibre

 pA-di-bAstt  Padibastet (Piece Of Sand Of A Coast)

 Egyptian ruler who, as generally assumed, revolted against satrap Arjandes. Confirmaed by inscriptions on scarab and two seals.

2

521 - 486
522/21-486/85 (von Beckerath)

Darius I ( The Great )

  • Hr mnx-ib , wr-nb-mri-Smaw
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • stwt-ra , mri-imn-ra , mri-imn-ra-nb-hbt nTr-aA nHt-xpS
  • driwS , intriwS , Dareios (Man)
 Hr mnx-ib
 Hr wr-nb-mri-Smaw
 stwt-ra  Stutre
 driwS  Darius
 intriwS

Son of Hystaspes, King of Persia. Diodorus described him as the sixth and last great law-giver of Egypt. Darius the Great imposed many valuable social and economical reforms. He respected the local religion. His building policy focused on erecting and decorating the temple of Amun-Re at Hibis (Charga Oasis). He renewed also the temple of Ptah at Memphis, built at Fayum, el-Kab, Busiris and Sais. He completed the 84 km long canal, building of which was started by Nekau II and which lead from the eastern Nile branch to the Red Sea. The satrap Arjandes, who suppressed the Egyptian revolt at the beginning of Darius’ rule was later executed by this king because dared to mint coins with his own image. Darius visited Egypt in 518 BC.

3

486 - 466
486/85-465/64 (von Beckerath)

Xserxes I

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • xSriS , Xerxes (Man)

 xSriS  Xerxes

Considerable period of his rule he spent putting down numerous uprising which were breaking out after death of Darius the Great all over the land. Both Herodotus and letter of Khnumemakhet to Artabanos, the commander of garrison, record these events. In 482 BC he had to suppress revolt in the very Babylonia. His attempt to conquest Greece ended up with failure in 480 BC after the battle at Salamina. Xerxes met his death murdered in August 465 BC.

4

465 - 424
465/64-424 (von Beckerath)


Artaxerxes I ( Longhand )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ArtxSsS , Artaxerxes(Man)

 ArtxSsS  Artaxerxes

Soon after Artaxerxes ascended the throne the Libyan prince Inaros and prince Amyrtaios of Sais rose in revolt. In the battle at Papremis army of Persian strap Achmenes, brother of Artaxerxes I, was defeated and Artaxerxes himself was killed. However soon thereafter Megabysos, Syrian satrap, regained Memphis and destroyed Greek fleet which came into support of Egyptians. Due to the treaty in 449 BC Athens pledged to have no contribution in the conflict of Cyprus and Egypt with Persia. At that time Upper Egypt was still remaining under Persian control.

b


Inaros

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • irt-Hr-r.w

One of the magnates of the Delta, son of Psametik, the Libyan prince. In 460 BC, he revolted with help of Amyrtajos of Sais and with Athenian allies from whom he was paid 100 triers, and he defeated commanded by satrap Akheimenes Persians. The Persians retreated to Memphis, but Athenians were finally defeated in 456 by Persian army under command of Megabazos.  Inaros had been captured and carried away to Suza where he was crucified in 454 BC.

5

424

 

Xserxes II

 Son and successor of Artaxerxes I. He was married to their common half-sister Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes I and his concubine Andia of Babylon. It was only 45 days after his overtaking a rule, as Xerxes was executed by his step-brother Sogdianus.

6

424

Sogdianus

Persian ruler not recorded in any of known Egyptian historical sources.  He was reportedly an illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I and his concubine Alogyne of Babylon. He was also step-brother of Xerxes II whom he executed and for a short period replaced on the Persian throne.

7

424 - 404
423-405 (Dodson)
424-405/04 (von Beckerath)

Darius II

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • mri-imn-ra
  • driwS , Dareios deuteros (Man)
 driwS  Darius

We know very little about reign of Darius II - Arameian papyri of Elephantine - rebellion of the Medes in 409 and robbery of the temple in 410 BC. He was quite dependent on his wife Parysatis.  He gave orders to his satraps in Asia Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, to send in the overdue tribute of the Greek towns, and to begin a war with Athens. For this purpose they entered into an alliance with Sparta. In 408 he sent his son Cyrus to Asia Minor, to carry on the war with greater energy. In 414 BC a national uprising under Amyrtaeus took place. Died in 404 BC.

8

404 - 402
405/04-401 (von Beckerath)

Artaxerxes II Mnemon ( Arsaces )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ArtxSsS , Artaxerxes(Man)

ArtxSsS  Artaxerxes

Artaxerxes was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He defended his position against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial governors, the Satraps (366 - 358). According to Arameian papyri of Elephantine this Persian ruler was recognized in southern Egypt the legal pharaoh until Amyrtaios extended his rule all over the Land.

to XXVI dynasty

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to XXVIII dynasty