XXVIIth Dynasty 525 - 404 ( First Persian Dominion )
two occasions, Egypt was integrated into the Persian empire. The first Persian
domination lasted for 120 years. The Great Kings were represented at Memphis by
a satrap and a treasurer, but on the ideological level, these emperors were the
successors of the Saite kings and composed Manetho's Twenty-seventh Dynasty.
Since the Saites had enabled the economy and the culture of Egypt to flourish
brilliantly, Cambyses and Darius I acquired an especially lucrative province.
While the Persians recruited native officials who were highly qualified to
administer the land, they also settled or reinforced the foreign garrisons (the
Judeo-Aramaeans of Elephantine) and gave Greek and Phoenician merchants a freer
hand. Around 445 b.c.e., under Artaxerxes I,
visited Egypt. Cambyses and especially Darius I, were depicted as genuine
pharaohs on both public and private monuments. To view the transcription
of kings titulary properly, please
download and install transliteration font.
525 - 522
kmbt , kmbD , gmwD ,Kambyses
Mesutire (Descendant Of Re)
of Cirrus the Great who founded Persian Empire. He came to the Persian
throne in 530 BC and five years later – also to Egyptian one. At
Pelusium he defeated Egyptian army commanded by Phanes, the chieftain of
Psametik III. Presumably Phanes betrayed the king
and took the Persians’ side while Udjahorresent - the high priest of
Neith at Sais, gave up defense and surrendered his fleet. In revenge for
stirring up revolts Cambyses
commanded to murder 2 thousands of captives, among others Psametik III.
Greek tradition, unfavorable to Persians, presents Cambyses
as an unrestrained and cruel ruler who was against religion, allowed
plunders and violence. Leaving the captured Egypt under residing in
Memphis satrap Ariandes, Cambyses
proceeded to Persia due to revolt risen by his own brother’s, Smerdis.
He died on the way in 522.
522 - 520
(Piece Of Sand Of A Coast)
ruler who, as generally assumed, revolted against satrap Arjandes.
Confirmaed by inscriptions on scarab and two seals.
of Hystaspes, King of Persia. Diodorus described him as the sixth and last
great law-giver of Egypt. Darius the Great imposed many valuable social and
economical reforms. He respected the local religion. His building policy
focused on erecting and decorating the temple of Amun-Re at Hibis (Charga
Oasis). He renewed also the temple of Ptah at Memphis, built at Fayum,
el-Kab, Busiris and Sais. He completed the 84 km long canal, building of
which was started by Nekau
and which lead from the eastern Nile branch to the Red Sea. The satrap
Arjandes, who suppressed the Egyptian revolt at the beginning of Darius’
rule was later executed by this king because dared to mint coins with his
own image. Darius visited Egypt
in 518 BC.
486 - 466
486/85-465/64 (von Beckerath)
period of his rule he spent putting down numerous uprising which were
breaking out after death of Darius the Great all over the land. Both
Herodotus and letter of Khnumemakhet to Artabanos, the commander of
garrison, record these events. In 482 BC he had to suppress revolt in the
very Babylonia. His attempt to conquest Greece ended up with failure in 480
BC after the battle at Salamina. Xerxes met his death murdered in August 465
465 - 424
465/64-424 (von Beckerath)
( Longhand )
after Artaxerxes ascended the throne the Libyan prince Inaros and prince
Amyrtaios of Sais rose in revolt. In the battle at Papremis army of
Persian strap Achmenes, brother of Artaxerxes I, was defeated and
Artaxerxes himself was killed. However soon thereafter Megabysos, Syrian
satrap, regained Memphis and destroyed Greek fleet which came into
support of Egyptians. Due to the treaty in 449 BC Athens pledged to have
no contribution in the conflict of Cyprus and Egypt with Persia. At that
time Upper Egypt was still remaining under Persian control.
of the magnates of the Delta, son of Psametik, the Libyan prince. In 460 BC,
he revolted with help of Amyrtajos of Sais and with Athenian allies from
whom he was paid 100 triers, and he defeated commanded by satrap Akheimenes
Persians. The Persians retreated to Memphis, but Athenians were finally
defeated in 456 by Persian army under command of Megabazos. Inaros had
been captured and carried away to Suza where he was crucified in 454 BC.
and successor of Artaxerxes I. He was married to their common
half-sister Parysatis, daughter of Artaxerxes I and his concubine Andia
of Babylon. It was only 45 days after his overtaking a rule, as Xerxes
was executed by his step-brother Sogdianus.
ruler not recorded in any of known Egyptian historical sources.
He was reportedly an illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I and his concubine
Alogyne of Babylon. He was also step-brother of Xerxes II whom he
executed and for a short period replaced on the Persian throne.
know very little about reign of Darius II - Arameian papyri of Elephantine -
rebellion of the Medes in 409
and robbery of the temple in 410 BC.
He was quite
dependent on his wife Parysatis. He gave orders to his satraps in Asia
Minor, Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, to send in the overdue tribute of the
Greek towns, and to begin a war with Athens. For this purpose they entered
into an alliance with Sparta. In 408 he sent his son Cyrus to Asia Minor, to
carry on the war with greater energy.
414 BC a national uprising under Amyrtaeus took place.
Died in 404 BC.
404 - 402
Artaxerxes II Mnemon
was king of Persia from 404 BC until his death. He defended his position
against his brother Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated and killed at
the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, and against a revolt of the provincial
governors, the Satraps (366 - 358). According to Arameian papyri of
Elephantine this Persian ruler was recognized in southern Egypt the
legal pharaoh until Amyrtaios extended his rule all over the Land.