in Nubia between the end of the New Kingdom and the early eighth century BC,
evidence is extremely meagre. Although the suggestion that Lower Nubia was
depopulated during this period is probably an exaggeration, the population may
have been less prosperous than in earlier times and perhaps reverted to a
semi-nomadic economy or migrated to the more prosperous south. Sporadic
references to viceroys of Kush during XXIst-XXIIIrd
Dynasties indicate that some Egyptian pretensions to authority there were
maintained, and elements of royal titularies and formal epithets from temple
inscriptions in Egypt have been adduced as supportive evidence for an aggressive
policy to regain Upper Nubia - but, if this were the case, there was no lasting
effect. By the mid-eighth century the chieftains of Napata, the
centre of the cult of Amun in Nubia, had become overlords of Nubia and were
already entertaining pretensions to rule Egypt as well.
The office of Divine
Adoratrise of Amun becomes more and
more important and royal daughters and sisters at Theban throne hold rule
equally powerful as royal power. To view the transcription of kings titulary
download and install transliteration font.
770 - 750
of Napata, brother of Kashta. Founder of Kushite Dynasty, mentioned on
the stela of Taharka from Kawa as “the Prince, Son of Ra”. From marriage
of Alara with Kasaki was born Tabira,
later wife of Piyi (Pianchi).
of Napata, father of Pianchi, Abara, Peksater, Amenardis and probably of
Shabaka. He caused one of his daughters, Amenardis,
to be consecrated Adorer of Amun in Thebes. After finishing
expansion he carried the title of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, son
of Re, Lord of the Two Lands. Burial place –
pyramid at el-Kurru.
of Napata, son and successor of Kashta. Came into possession of Upper Egypt
and founded the XXV Egyptian Dynasty, named also Kushite or Napata Dynasty.
After Tefnakht’s expedition he defeated Nimlot, the
Tefnakht’s ally, crushed fleet of the Egyptian king and conquered
Hermopolis. Coalition of northern kings, organized against Kushite king,
apart from Tefnakht and Nimlot from Hermopolis
included also prince
Osorkon IV, Iupet
Piankhi accepted tribute from all princes after defeating their garrisons in
main cities, including Memphis. After religious celebrations in temple of
Ptah at Memphis and Atum at Heliopolis, he returned to Napata from where he
ruled over Egypt. Burial place –
pyramid at el-Kurru.
Neferkare Meriamun (Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re ; Beloved
of Kashta and Pabatma.
After suppressing a revolt risen by northern princes and burning
Bokchoris at a stake (according to Manetho) he
ruled over Egypt. In face of still growing in power Assirians he
followed the policy of his predecessors, which was mainly based upon
intrigues and making political alliances. Traces of Shabaka’s building
activities are found both at Delta and to the south, including oases.
Burial place –
some pieces of equipment are preserved.
of Shabaka and father of Tenutamen.
His policy against Assiria was entirely more aggressive than that of his
predecessors. He headed the army which set out in support of Jerusalem.
In 701 BC antissirian coalition was defeated by Sanheryb at Eltekeh in
Palestine. Hezekiah of Judah surrended to Assiria and paid heavy tribute
to avoid ravage of Jerusalem. The Old Testament suggests that a plague
in Assirian army saved Egyptians and Hebrevians from complete defeat.
in turn tells that retreat of Assirians was due to swarms of mice who ate
up their weapon. Building activities of Shabataka are most pronounced at
Thebes (chapel by Holy Lake at Karnak and reliefs at Luxor) but also at
Memphis and Kawa. Burial place –
pyramid 18 at el-Kurru. Some pieces
of funerary equipment, skull and bones of Shabataka were found.
700 - 680
ruler disclosed by local relics and stela of Turin.
690 - 664
Hr qAi-xaw , qAi-xaw thrq
bik-nbw , bikwi-nbw ,
thr-kA (sA-ra , mri-imn)
of Piankchi and Abale. He is regarded as a ruler who re-united the Land.
At that time the prince and actual ruler of Thebes was Montuemhat – the
fourth prophet of Amun. Taharqa
rebelled at Sydon in 677 BC which caused Ashaddon’s campaign as a result
of which Lower Egypt fell into Assirian possession while Taharqa
escaped to Thebes. In 669 BC Taharqa
regained the rule over Delta from local princes. Building
activities of Taharqa
refer to most splendid periods of Egyptian history and their traces can
be found all over the Land. Most known are: temples at Sanam, Kawa,
Atribis, Pnubs, Semna, Kasr Ibrim and numerous structures at Karnak and
Theban district. Burial place – probably
pyramid at Nuri, although it can not be excluded that he was
buried in another place – at Sedeinga, in pyramid-tomb where blocks with
the name of Taharqa
and corpse of 50 years old man were discovered.
680 - 665
Padibastet II ( Petubastis )
Padibastet(Wise One Of Bastet)
on the throne at Tanis. His rule coincide with Asyrian expansion. To our
times survived statue of Padibastet at Memphis and stone blocks from
temple at Tanis or Heliopolis. It is assumed that Padibastet did not
participate in a plot against Assurbanipal and he utilized Taharka’s
escape to South and Nakau’s carry out to Assyria to occupy Memphis for a
brief time. From times of Padibastet rule come demotic stories – so
called Cycle of Patubastis, in its style recalling “Iliad” of Homer.
665 - 657
(Beautiful Ka, Re)
a regent holding rule at Tanis. Mentioned in two monuments in companion
664 - 656 664-655/53 (von
xwi-tAwi Hkn-... (?)
(Glorious Is The Soul Of Re)
son of Shabataka and Kalhat, it is believed that Tenuetamun was son of
Shabataka. For short time he shared the rule with Taharka and gained it
thoroughly after his death. As mentioned on the Stela of Dream he lead a
victorious campaign in the Delta against Egyptian princes surrendered to
Assirian rule. As a result of Assirian interrupt he had to find refuge
at Thebes, and later in Nubia. In 663 BC Thebes were conquered and
completely plundered by Assurbanipal whose army retreated from Upper
Egypt leaving garrisons at the Delta. Although actually the rule at
Thebes was held by Montunemhat and Shapenewpet II,
the formal reign was still ascribed to Tenwetamun.
Burial place - pyramid at el-Kurru.