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to XXIV dynasty

XXVth dynastia 740 - 656
( Kushite Dynasty - Napata, Thebes, Tanis )

to XXVI dynasty

For events in Nubia between the end of the New Kingdom and the early eighth century BC, evidence is extremely meager. Although the suggestion that Lower Nubia was depopulated during this period is probably an exaggeration, the population may have been less prosperous than in earlier times and perhaps reverted to a semi-nomadic economy or migrated to the more prosperous south. Sporadic references to viceroys of Kush during XXIst-XXIIIrd Dynasties indicate that some Egyptian pretensions to authority there were maintained, and elements of royal titularies and formal epithets from temple inscriptions in Egypt have been adduced as supportive evidence for an aggressive policy to regain Upper Nubia - but, if this were the case, there was no lasting effect. By the mid-eighth century the chieftains of Napata, the centre of the cult of Amun in Nubia, had become overlords of Nubia and were already entertaining pretensions to rule Egypt as well. The office of Divine Adoratrise of Amun becomes more and more important and royal daughters and sisters at Theban throne hold rule equally powerful as royal power.
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770 - 750
780-760 (Aston)

Alara ( Alula )

  • ilr

 ilr Alara

Ruler of Napata, brother of Kashta. Founder of Kushite Dynasty, mentioned on the stela of Taharka from Kawa as “the Prince, Son of Ra”. From marriage of Alara with Kasaki was born Tabira, later wife of Piyi (Pianchi).


750 - 730
760-747 (Aston, Málek, Kitchen, Arnold)
?-746 (von Beckerath)
755-735 (Redford)


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • mAa-ra
  • kSt
 mAa-ra Maatre

  kSt Kashta

Ruler of Napata, father of Pianchi, Abara, Peksater, Amenardis and probably of Shabaka. He caused one of his daughters, Amenardis, to be consecrated  Adorer of Amun in Thebes. After finishing expansion he carried the title of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, son of Re, Lord of the Two Lands. Burial place – pyramid at el-Kurru.


730 - 716
-723 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
752-717 (Dodson)
751-716 (Drioton)
747-716 (Aston, Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
746-713 (von Beckerath)
735-712 (Redford)

Piankhi ( Piye )

  • Hr smA-tAwi
  • msi-Hmt
  • saSA-qniw
  • mn-xpr-ra
  • py
  • Hr Htp-m-niwt ( ?) , kA nxt xai-m-qAst ,
  • HqA-kmt
  • ... ...
  • wsr-mAat-ra , snfr-ra
  • py (mri-imn , sA-bAstt mri-imn , sA-ist mri-imn) , pr-aA py
 Hr smA-tAwi

 mn-xpr-ra Menkheperre (The Manifestation Of Re)

 py Piye

King of Napata, son and successor of Kashta. Came into possession of Upper Egypt and founded the XXV Egyptian Dynasty, named also Kushite or Napata Dynasty. After Tefnakht’s expedition he defeated Nimlot, the Tefnakht’s ally, crushed fleet of the Egyptian king and conquered Hermopolis. Coalition of northern kings, organized against Kushite king, apart from Tefnakht and Nimlot from Hermopolis included also prince Osorkon IV, Iupet II and Sheshonq V. Piankhi accepted tribute from all princes after defeating their garrisons in main cities, including Memphis. After religious celebrations in temple of Ptah at Memphis and Atum at Heliopolis, he returned to Napata from where he ruled over Egypt. Burial place – pyramid at el-Kurru.


716 - 702
-707 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
717-703 (Dodson)
716-702 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
713-698 (von Beckerath)
712-698 (Redford)


  • Hr sbq-tAwi
  • sbq-tAwi
  • sbq-tAwi
  • nfr-kA-ra (mri-imn)
  • Sbk (mri-imn) , Sabakon (Man)
 Hr sbq-tAwi

 nfr-kA-ra (mri-imn) Neferkare Meriamun (Beautiful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re ; Beloved Of Amun)

 Sbk Shabaka

Son of Kashta and Pabatma. After suppressing a revolt risen by northern princes and burning Bokchoris at a stake (according to Manetho) he ruled over Egypt. In face of still growing in  power Assirians he followed the policy of his predecessors, which was mainly based upon intrigues and making political alliances. Traces of Shabaka’s building activities are found both at Delta and to the south, including oases. Burial place – pyramid at el-Kurru, some pieces of equipment are preserved.


702 - 690
-690 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
705-690 (Redford)
703-690 (Dodson)
702-690 (Grimal, Arnold, Shaw)
698-690 (von Beckerath)


  • Hr Dd-xaw , Dd-xat , Dd--xaw Sbtk , kA nxt xai-m-wAst
  • Dd-xaw nbti , aA-Sfit-m-tAw-nb(w) , sxai-mAat mri-tAwi
  • aA-HpS Hwi-pDt-9 , hrw-Hr-nxtw
  • Dd-kAw-ra , Dd-kA-ra
  • Sbtk (mri-imn , mri-ptH) , Sebichos (Man)

 Dd-kAw-ra Djedkawre (Enduring Is The Soul Of Re)

 Sbtk (mri-imn) Shabataka Meriamon

Son of Shabaka and father of Tenutamen. His policy against Assiria was entirely more aggressive than that of his predecessors. He headed the army which set out in support of Jerusalem. In 701 BC antissirian coalition was defeated by Sanheryb at Eltekeh in Palestine. Hezekiah of Judah surrended to Assiria and paid heavy tribute to avoid ravage of Jerusalem. The Old Testament suggests that a plague in Assirian army saved Egyptians and Hebrevians from complete defeat. Herodotus in turn tells that retreat of Assirians was due to swarms of mice who ate up their weapon. Building activities of Shabataka are most pronounced at Thebes (chapel by Holy Lake at Karnak and reliefs at Luxor) but also at Memphis and Kawa. Burial place – pyramid 18 at el-Kurru. Some pieces of funerary equipment, skull and bones of Shabataka were found.


700 - 680


Local ruler disclosed by local relics and stela of Turin.


690 - 664


  • Hr qAi-xaw , qAi-xaw thrq
  • qAi-xaw
  • bik-nbw , bikwi-nbw , xwi-tAwi
  • xwi-nfrtm-ra
  • thr-kA (sA-ra , mri-imn) , Tarakos (Man)
 Hr qAi-xaw

 xwi-nfrtm-ra Nefertumre

 thr-kA Taharqa


Son of Piankchi and Abale. He is regarded as a ruler who re-united the Land. At that time the prince and actual ruler of Thebes was Montuemhat – the fourth prophet of Amun. Taharqa rebelled at Sydon in 677 BC which caused Ashaddon’s campaign as a result of which Lower Egypt fell into Assirian possession while Taharqa escaped to Thebes. In 669 BC Taharqa regained the rule over Delta from local princes.  Building activities of Taharqa refer to most splendid periods of Egyptian history and their traces can be found all over the Land. Most known are: temples at Sanam, Kawa, Atribis, Pnubs, Semna, Kasr Ibrim and numerous structures at Karnak and Theban district. Burial place – probably pyramid at Nuri, although it can not be excluded that  he was buried in another place – at Sedeinga, in pyramid-tomb where blocks with the name of Taharqa and corpse of 50 years old man were discovered.


680 - 665

Padibastet II ( Petubastis )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • pA-di-bAstt , Petubastis (Man)

 pA-di-bAstt Padibastet (Wise One Of Bastet)

Successor of Gemnefkhosubak on the throne at Tanis. His rule coincide with Asyrian expansion. To our times survived statue of Padibastet at Memphis and stone blocks from temple at Tanis or Heliopolis. It is assumed that Padibastet did not participate in a plot against Assurbanipal and he utilized Taharka’s escape to South and Nakau’s carry out to Assyria to occupy Memphis for a brief time. From times of Padibastet rule come demotic stories – so called Cycle of Patubastis, in its style recalling “Iliad” of Homer.


665 - 657


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nfr-kA-ra
  • ... ...

 nfr-kA-ra Neferkare (Beautiful Ka, Re)

Presumably a regent holding rule at Tanis. Mentioned in two monuments in companion of Psametik I.


664 - 656
664-655/53 (von Beckerath)


  • Hr wAH-mrwt
  • sanx-tAwi(?)
  • xwi-tAwi Hkn-... (?)
  • bA-kA-ra
  • tnwt-imn
 Hr wAH-mrwt

 bA-kA-ra Bakare (Glorious Is The Soul Of Re)

 tnwt-imn Tenuetamun

Presumably son of Shabataka and Kalhat, it is believed that Tenuetamun was son of Shabataka. For short time he shared the rule with Taharka and gained it thoroughly after his death. As mentioned on the Stela of Dream he lead a victorious campaign in the Delta against Egyptian princes surrendered to Assirian rule. As a result of Assirian interrupt he had to find refuge at Thebes, and later in Nubia. In 663 BC Thebes were conquered and completely plundered by Assurbanipal whose army retreated from Upper Egypt leaving garrisons at the Delta. Although actually the rule at Thebes was held by Montunemhat and Shapenewpet II, the formal reign was still ascribed  to Tenwetamun. Burial place  - pyramid at el-Kurru.

to XXIV dynasty

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to XXVI dynasty