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to III dynasty

IVth Dynasty 2655 - 2484
( Memphis )

Times of Dynasty IV constitute undoubtedly an age of Egyptian glory. The prosperity is authenticated by many monumental tombs-pyramids. A founder of this dynasty owned enough means to build as much as three objects in that style. His successors created edifices on a breath-taking scale, already in antiquity they were called the Wonders of the World while many our contemporaries believe they are creations of alien civilizations. The economic policy of that period was in fact based on natural resources from mines and quarries as well as on building of temples and tombs. War and trade campaigns, led previously by pharaoh Snofru, gradually seem to loose their significance under his successors.
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2655 - 2607
2649-2609 (Redford)
2614-2579 (von Beckerath)
2613-2589 (Shaw)
2600-2555 (Arnold)

2597-2547 (Dodson)
2575-2551 (Allen)
2573-2549 (Malek)
2543-2510 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

  • Hr nb-mAat , nb-mAat snfr=w(i)
  • nb-mAat-nbti
  • bik-nbw
  • ... ...
  • (ni-swt-bit) snfr-w(i) , snfrw (Aby.20) , snfr (Tur.3.9) , Soris (Man)
(Horus Name)   Hr nb mAat
Horus Nebmaat
(Horus, Lord Of The Harmony)
Hr nb mAat snfrw
Horus Neb Maat Snefru
(Horus, Lord Of Harmony, Snefru)
(Nebti Name) nb.ti nb mAat
Nebti Nebmaat
(The Two Ladies, Lord Of Harmony)
(Golden Horus Name)   bik nbw
(The Golden Falcon ?)
Abydos Table
(He Of Beauty)
Turin Canon

Son of pharaoh Huni and queen Maresankh I. It is difficult to assess the precise length of  his rule.  The Turin Canon assigns to him 24 years but some scholars think that, following the so called 24-fould counting, every 2 year, Snefru had ruled 48 years at least, at which point also his building activities.   He started an epoch of building of the stone pyramids, he erected three of them for himself – one at Meidum (by some ascribed to pharaoh Huni) and two at Dahshur. According to Palermo Stone records, apart from building and economical activities, he made two expeditions to Nubia and Libya from where returned with thousands of cattle and slaves. He organized also oversea expedition to Lebanon for cedar, from where 40 ships loaded with the wood arrived back to Egypt. Inscriptions of Wadi Maghara give evidence that the whole Sinai was at that time under Egyptian rule. In historical records survived opinion of Snofru being a benevolent and clever ruler. It is believed that between his 12 and 15 year of rule for political reasons he moved his residence and royal necropolis north to Dahshur where he ordered to build a pyramid known to us as Bent Pyramid. Probably he was buried in the third pyramid, built of locally gained red sandstone, named the Red Pyramid. This rule is also attributed a small pyramid in Seila.

Pyramid at Meidum  Bent pyramid at Dahshur Red pyramid at Dahshur


2607 - 2573
2609-2584 (Redford)
2589-2566 (Shaw)
2579-2556 (von Beckerath)
2555-2520 (Arnold)

2551-2528 (Allen)
2549-2526 (Malek)
2547-2524 (Dodson)
2509-2483 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Khufu ( Kheops )

  • Hr mDdw, mDd(w)
  • ny-swtbit mDd-r-nbti , mDd-r-nbti
  • bikwi-nbw
  • xwfw
  • xwi=f-wi-Xnm w (Xnmw-xwi=f-wi) , xwi=f-wi , xfw (Aby.21)  , xwfw (Sak.17)  , Suphis (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr mDdw
Horus Medjedu
(Horus Who Strikes)

Hr mDd
Horus Medjed (Horus, The One Who Strikes)

(Nebti Name)


mDd r nb.ti
Nebti r Medjed
(The One Who Strikes For The Two Ladies)

nsw-bi.ti nb.ti mDd
Nesubiti Nebti Medjed (The King of Upper And Lower Egypt, The Two Ladies, The One Who Strikes)

(Golden Horus Name)


bik.wi nbw(.wi)
(The Two Golden Falcons) 

Abydos Table


(Protected By [Khnum])
Saqqara Table
(Protected By [Khnum])
(Nomen & Prenomen)
Xnmw xwfw 
Khnum Khufu (Protected By Khnum)
Khufuf (Protected By [Khnum])

Head of tiny sculpture found at AbydosSon of Snofru by queen Hetepheres I, father of Khafre and Djedefre. He was the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza. The Turin Canon records 23 years of rule and Manetho - as many as 63 years. The Palermo Stone mentions only founding of a colossal statue 7 m high and another one statue of gold. Numerous stories passed on by Herodotus and Westcar papyrus in belletristic manner describe the times of his rule. The Westcar papyrus, which records coming to the rule of the dynasty V presents Khufu in rather positive light. Herodotus in turn describes him as a tyrant harassing the people by forcing them to build colossal structures. Historical facts concerning that period are very scant. His family connections are still under discussion. It is thought that Khufu came to the rule after death of his step-brother, unknown from name son of Snofru (Kanefer?) buried in M17 mastaba at Maidum. Traces of Khufu’s rule have been found at Bubastis, Tanis, Buto and Dendera, Koptos and Hierakonpolis. The famous ivory figure representing the ruler was discovered at Abydos. From the Hat-Nub and Wadi-Hammat quarries are known graffiti dated to the times of Khufu’s rule. There were exploited also copper and turquoise mines at Synai (Wadi Maghara) and diorite mines near Abu Simbel.

Tiny (3 inch) high ivory sculpture of Khufu found at Abydos Khufu's catouche from a builders' graffito found in the relieve chamber over the King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid (after Lepsius).  Small limestone head, probably of king Khufu


2573 - 2565
2584-2576 (Redford)
2566-2558 (Shaw)
2556-2547 (von Beckerath)
2528-2520 (Allen)
2526-2518 (Malek)
2524-2516 (Dodson)
2520-2512 (Arnold)
2482-2475 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Djedefre ( Redjedef )

  • Hr xpr
  • xpr-m-nbti
  • bikw-nbw
  • ... ...
  • Dd=f-ra (ra-Dd=f) (Sak.18) , Ratoises (Man)
(Horus Name)


Hr xpr
Horus Kheper
(Horus Who Is Transformed)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti xpr m
Nebti Kheperem
(The One Who Is Transformed Into The Two Ladies)

(Golden Horus Name)


bikw nbw(w)
(The Three Golden Falcons) 

Abydos Table
Dd f ra
Djedefre (Enduring Like Re)


Son of Khufu, brother of Khafre. According to G. Raisner he was Khufu’s son by his Libyan wife. Djedefre was supposed to murder his own brother Kuaf (Kewab) and rule 8 years until dethroned. Graffitos in the eastern chamber with boat by Khufu’s pyramid testify that Djedefre completed his father’s burial which argues with the theory of usurping the rule. Very scant data preserved in annals from Djedefre times give evidence that he built ships and temples. He started building the mortuary complex and pyramid at Abu Roash, however it could not be completed due to the short period of his rule (8 years according to the Turin Canon). The pyramid was supposed to be over 90 m high and 100 m long at its base. Funerary chambers located presently 20 m under the ground level, were constructed from huge blocks of Aswan granite. It is possible that the king’s sarcophagus still remains under ruins which have never been examined thoroughly.

Ruin pyramid at Abu Roash

 Ruin mortuary temple at Abu Roash


2565 - 2525
2576-2551 (Redford)
2558-2532 (Shaw)
2547-2521 (von Beckerath)
2520-2494 (Allen)
2518-2493 (Malek)
2516-2493 (Dodson)
2512-2477 (Arnold)
2472-2448 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Khafre ( Khefren )

  • Hr wsr-ib
  • wsr-m-nbti
  • sxm-bik-nbw , nTr-nbw-sxm
  • ... ...
  • xaw=f-ra (Aby.23, Sak.19) , xai=f-ra , wsr-ib xai[=f]-ra , Suphis (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr wsr ib
Horus Weserib
(Horus Strong Of Heart)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti wsr m
Weser em Nebti
(The One Who Is Strong For The Two Ladies) 

(Golden Horus Name)


sxm bik nbw (?)
Sekhem Bik Nebu
(The Golden Falcon Is Powerful)



xa f ra
(Appearing Like Re)
Abydos Table
xa f ra
Khafre (Re Has Appeared)
wsr ib xa f ra
Weserib Khafre (Re Has Appeared, Strong Of Heart)

Son of Khufu by queen Henutsen (or another queen of unknown name), might have been the same as Khufukhaf. Manetho regards Khafre younger brother of Kheops. The Turin Canon gives 20 years of rule (the data is to great extent damaged). Manetho gives 56 (or 66) years. He was builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza and, probably, of Sphinx. A. Mariette discovered in a mortuary temple two beautiful diorite statues of the ruler. Extremely little is known about political activity of this ruler. There are only few architectural monuments preserved to date apart from the funerary complex at Giza. After Khafre’s death the rule was held probably by regent, son of Djedefre – Baka, whereupon Mankaure – son of Khafre ascended the throne.

Second Pyramid at Giza Valley temple at Giza


 Tablica genealogiczna


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • bAw.f ra

Some scholars regard him the king and place between Khafre and Mankaure. In the rock inscription of Wadi Hammat dated back to the Middle Kingdom Bawfre is recorded as a king and successor of Khafre. Most likely he had never ruled.


Tablica genealogiczna


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...

Son of Khufu by queen Meririt. In W. Helck and N. Gimal’s opinion he was a ruler of Egypt, however majority of scholars would not favor the hypothesis of Djedefhor’s ruling alone. A rock inscription at Wadi Hammamat, dated back to Middle Kingdom period mentions him and Bawfre as Khafre’s successors. There is also opinion that he was father of queen  Khenkawes I, the mother of first pharaohs of dynasty V. Buried in mastaba at Giza.


2525 - 2521
2521-2514 (von Beckerath)
2494 - 2490 (Allen)

2493-2488 (Malek)
2477-2472 (Arnold)
2474-2473 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Tablica genealogiczna

Baka ( Bikare )

  • Hr kA-Hr ?
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • bA(?)-kA(=i) , { bA-kA-ra , sbA-... } , Bicheris (Man)
(Nomen) bA(?)-kA(=i)
(The Soul of Ka)

The eldest son of Djedefre, his name is disclosed by a statue of Abu Rawash and graffito in a dug-out of the north pyramid at Zawijet el-Aryan which possibly belonged to him. Main problem is the correct reading of a cartouche name found within six ink inscriptions. Whilst the lower (therefore second) hieroglyphic sign is for sure a Ka-symbol, the early sign is illegible. Unfortunately the excavator, Alessandro Barsanti, made no facsimiles, but slipshod hand-drawings, so that the last sign remains indefinable. As a consequence, there are several, alternative readings of the cartouche name: Kurt Sethe reads Nebka (His Ka is the Lord), Jean-Philippe Lauer as Bik-Ka (His Ka is Divine), Peter Kaplony reads Schena-Ka (His Ka is Forceful) and Gaston Maspero reads Nefer-Ka (His Ka is Beautiful). Beckerath assumes that Baka changed his name into Bakare (Soul and Ka of Re) when he ascended the throne, but then he died surprisingly, leaving an unfinished tomb shaft. Thus, Beckerath and Reisner read the mysterious name at Zawyet el-Arjan as Ba-Ka (His Ka is His Soul). Aidan Dodson instead sees a sitting Seth-animal and therefore reads Seth-Ka (Seth is Mine Ka).


2521 - 2493
2551-2523 (Redford)
2514-2486 (von Beckerath)
2493-2475 (Dodson)
2490-2472 (Allen)
2488-2460 (Malek)
2472-2454 (Arnold)
2474-2473 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Menkaure ( Mykerinos )

  • Hr kA-Xt
  • kA-nbti
  • nTri-bik-nbw , nTr-nbw- nTri
  • ... ...
  • mn-kAw-ra (Aby.24) , mn-kA-ra , Mencheres (Man)
(Horus Name)


Hr kA xt
Horus Ka Khet
(Horus (With) The Body Of A Bull)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti kA
Nebti Ka
(The Bull Of  The Two Ladies)

(Golden Horus Name)


bik nbw nTr
Bik-Nebu Netjer
(The Golden Falcon Is Divine)

Abydos Table
mn kA.w ra 
(Eternal Like The Souls Of Re)


mn kA.w ra
(Eternal Like The Souls Of Re)

mn kA(.w) ra
Menkaure (Eternal Like The Souls Of Re)

Son of Khafre by queen Khemerernebti I, brother and husband of Khemerernrbti II. Turin Canon assigns to him 18 (or 28) years of rule. Burial place – the third pyramid of Giza. Manetho presents Menkaure (Mencheres) in much more positive light than his predecessors and gives him 63 years of rule. Apart from magnificent pyramid-tomb at Giza we merely know anything of this ruler. The Pyramid of Mykerinos is much smaller than those preceding its building. It is 66m high, angle of slope - 51o, length of sides at base – 102 x 105 m. Sarcophagus had been robbed by R.W. Vyse and sunk with a ship transporting it near coasts of Spain. Vast part of mortuary complex (lower and upper mortuary temples and a ramp) was completed by Shepseskaf, the son and successor of Menkaure. He was worshipped after his death as confirmed in decrees issued by Shepseskaf, Nemtiemsaf and Pepi II.

Pyramid of Menkaure at Giza  Slate triad representing king and queen
Khemerernebti II, also like Hathor


2493 - 2486
2523-2519 (Redford)
2503-2498 (Shaw)
2486-2479 (von Beckerath)
2475-2471 (Dodson)
2472-2467 (Allen)
2460-2456 (Malek)
2454-2450 (Arnold)
2441-2436 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree


  • Hr Sps-Xt
  • Sps-nbti
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Spss-kA=f (Aby.25) , ni-swt-bit Spss-kA[=f] , Sebercheres (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr Sps Xt
Horus Shepseskhet
(Horus, Whose Body Is Noble)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti Sps
Nebti Sheps[es]
(The Noble One Of The Two Ladies)



Spss kAf
(His Soul Is Noble)

Abydos Table
Spss kAf 
Shepseskaf (His Soul Is Noble)

nsw-bi.ti Spss kAf
Nesubiti Shepseskaf (The King Of Upper And Lower Egypt, Shepseskaf)

Alabaster head from the valley temple of Menkaure. Generally identified as being Shepseskaf but suggested  another representation of Menkaure. Boston Museum Son of Menkaure by unknown queen, probably Khemerernebty (2). Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 4 years while Manetho – 7 years. The king is also mentioned in Palermo Stone. He completed the funerary complex of Mankaure, the last ruler of the dynasty. He was probably father of Djedefptah (Tamphtis by Manetho). Burial place – mastaba in Southern Sakkara.


2486 - 2484
2519-2513 (Redford)
2479-2477  (von Beckerath)
2467-2465 (Allen)

2456-2454 (Malek)

Family Tree

Djedefptah ( Tamphthis )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Tamphtis (Man)

Some scholars believe he was the last ruler of this dynasty. Probably he was a son of Shepseskaf. The Turin Canon assigns to him 2 years of rule, however his name did not survive until now. Manetho, who gives him the name of Tamphtis, probably the Greek form of the name Ptahdjedef or Djedefptah, gives him 9 years of rule.

to III dynasty

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